What is zeolite?
Zeolite is a natural volcanic mineral found in deposits throughout the western half of the united states.
Zeolite is among the rare minerals that possess a natural negative charge. The mix of the honeycomb structure and net unfavorable charge allows zeolite to both absorb liquids and adsorb elements based upon the strength of the chemical bond. The magnetic destination an aspect needs to zeolite is called the cec worth or capability to ion-exchange while the honeycomb structure makes use of molecular screen to filter substances.
Normally, natural zeolite includes an open, three-dimensional cage-like structure with a large network of open channels. These channels streaming throughout each granule are what make zeolite such a capable absorbent. Once the loosely bound, positively charged atoms (cations) take a trip through a channel, they become bound to the negatively charged honeycomb structure.
Zeolite has an aluminosilicate structure. Which merely suggests minerals composed of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen, plus countercations. This structure provides exceptional strength and stability to the honeycomb structure. It likewise makes it very hard for the favorably charged atoms (cations) to leach from zeolite.
There are a couple of aspects that figure out the absorption/adsorption abilities of natural zeolite. They are molecular structure, surface area, surface charge density, and cation exchange capability. These aspects will figure out bulk density and stability under different conditions. For instance, zeolite might have a greater bulk density after it has actually adsorbed heavy metals due to the fact it has actually included matter to itself. The smaller sized the granule size of zeolite the more it will absorb and adsorb due to the added surface area.
The varying sizes allow for various commercial applications. The smaller sized the size, the quicker absorption will happen along with significantly increased surface are. Bigger granule sizes work for water clean-up jobs or water filters. The bigger sizes permit water to flow at greater rates and to the desired back flow pressure. We have produced custom-made mixes or spec product in the past. Connect to us with your questions on custom-made zeolite mixes. 
What unique residential or commercial properties do zeolites have?
Zeolites are extremely steady solids that withstand the sort of ecological conditions that challenge many other materials. High temperatures don’t bother them due to the fact that they have reasonably high melting points (over 1000 ° c), and they don’t burn. They also withstand high pressures, don’t disssolve in water or other inorganic solvents, and do not oxidize in the air. They’re not believed to trigger health problems through, for instance, skin contact or inhalation, though in fibrous form, they may have carcinogenic (cancer-causing) effects. Given that they’re unreactive and based upon naturally occurring minerals, they’re not thought to have any damaging environmental impacts. Although zeolites might sound incredibly uninteresting, their steady and unreactive nature isn’t what makes them beneficial.
The most intriguing feature of zeolites is their open, cage-like, “framework” structure and the method it can trap other particles inside it. This is how water particles and alkali or alkaline-earth metal ions (positively charged atoms with too few electrons, sometimes called cations) end up being a part of zeolite crystals– although they do not always stay there completely. Zeolites can exchange other favorably charged ions for the metal ions originally caught inside them (technically this is known as cation exchange) and, as cronstedt found over 250 years ago, they can gain or lose their water molecules very quickly too (this is called reversible dehydration). Zeolites have regular openings in them of fixed size, which let small molecules pass directly through but trap bigger ones; that’s why they’re sometimes described as molecular screens. Unlike natural zeolites, which occur in random types and combined sizes, artificial zeolites are made in really accurate and consistent sizes (usually from about 1μm to 1mm) to suit a particular application; in other words, they’re made a specific size to trap particles of a specific (smaller) size inside them.
Although all zeolites are aluminosilicates, some contain more alumina, while others include more silica. Alumina-rich zeolites are brought in to polar particles such as water, while silica-rich zeolites work better with nonpolar molecules.
What are zeolite drivers?
Zeolites are utilized as catalysts in drug (pharmaceutical) production and in the petrochemical industry, where they’re used in catalytic crackers to break big hydrocarbon molecules into gasoline, diesel, kerosene, waxes and all type of other by-products of petroleum. Again, it’s the permeable structure of zeolites that proves important. The many pores in a zeolite’s open structure are like countless small test tubes where atoms and molecules become trapped and chemical reactions easily happen. Since the pores in a specific zeolite are of a fixed shapes and size, zeolite catalysts can work selectively on specific molecules, which is why they’re sometimes referred to as shape-selective catalysts (they can choose the molecules they work on in other methods next to sizes and shape, however). Like all catalysts, zeolites are recyclable over and over once again. 
When warmed, the mineral zeolite produces large amounts of steam taken in from the water around it. It was therefore named after the greek word “zeo” suggesting to boil. While zeolite can be found naturally, most industrial uses require synthetic production. Zeolites are typically used as adsorbents in the nuclear, agricultural, heating, cooling, cleaning agent and construction industries. The mineral is even used for detox and cat litter. 
Natural zeolites form where volcanic rocks and ash layers respond with alkaline groundwater. Zeolites also crystallized in post-depositional environments over durations ranging from thousands to countless years in shallow marine basins. Naturally happening zeolites are normally found as mixtures with other minerals, metals, quartz, or other zeolites. They are therefore left out from lots of essential commercial applications where uniformity and pureness are important.
Conventional open pit mining techniques are used to mine natural zeolites. The overburden is eliminated to enable access to the ore. The ore may be blasted or stripped for processing by utilizing tractors equipped with ripper blades and front-end loaders. In processing, the ore is crushed, dried, and grated. The grated ore may be air-classified as to particle size and delivered in bags or bulk. The crushed item might be evaluated to get rid of fine product when a granular product is required, and some pelletized items are produced from fine product. Manufacturers also might modify the homes of the zeolite or mix their zeolite products with other materials before sale to enhance their efficiency.
Presently, the world’s annual production of natural zeolite has to do with 4 million loads. Of this amount, 2.6 million tons are delivered to chinese markets to be used in the concrete market. Eastern europe, western europe, australia, and asia are world leaders in supplying the world’s demand for natural zeolite. By comparison, only 57,400 metric tons of zeolite (just 1 percent of the world’s current production) is produced in north america. Just recently has north america realized the capacity for existing and future markets.
Production of artificial zeolites
There are several types of artificial zeolites that form by a process of sluggish formation of a silica-alumina gel in the presence of alkalis and natural design templates. A crucial process for zeolite synthesis is called “sol-gel” processing. The product’s residential or commercial properties depend upon such elements as composition of the reaction mixture, ph of the system, operating temperature level, pre-reaction “seeding” time, response time, and the templates utilized. In the sol-gel process, other aspects (metals or metal oxides) can be quickly incorporated. The silicalite sol formed by the hydrothermal method is very stable. Likewise the ease of scaling up this process makes it a preferred route for zeolite synthesis.
Synthetic zeolites hold several crucial benefits over their natural analogs. For example, the synthetics can be produced in a uniform, pure state. In addition, it is possible to produce desirable zeolite structures that do not appear in nature. Zeolite a is a well-known example. Given that the principal basic materials used to produce zeolites are silica and alumina, which are among the most plentiful mineral parts in the world, the prospective to supply zeolites is essentially endless. Lastly, human crafted procedures are significantly faster than natural processes. Downsides consist of the failure to develop crystals with measurements of a similar size to their natural equivalents. 
Amazing health advantages of zeolites
1. Capture and remove toxins
Zeolites’ cavities are negatively charged compounds bring in and recording (for removal) toxins and other hazardous substances like complimentary radicals. Toxins are discovered in the family items we utilize to clean, in the items we placed on our skin, in the food we eat, water we consume, and the air we breathe. The elimination of these toxins allows the body’s cells to stay functional and fix themselves when damaged.
2. Help eliminate heavy metals
The problem with heavy metals going into the body from toxic wastes (consisting of contaminants in the food we consume) is that they build up in our body’s organs and tissue. They strain the capability of the liver to metabolize compounds for usage in the body and eliminate hazardous compounds. The constituents in zeolites have a high affinity for trapping these heavy hazardous metals, creating ‘… a dramatic effect in the threat decrease of particular cancers and heart disease-the two leading causes of death in the u.s.’ rik j. Deitsch.
3. Eliminate carcinogens
Cellular attack by totally free radicals and other toxic substances leaves harmed tissue and cells. These altered cells are the beginning of malignant destruction. Our cells require to eliminate them off before they harm the mitochondrial and nucleic dna. Zeolites assist in this battle.
4. Help healthy digestion
More specifically these silicate substances have actually been used to deal with diarrhea. They have a high affinity for ammonium ions, suggesting the body takes in less ammonia into the system through the intestinal tract walls. Ammonia is toxic to the cells and zeolites lower the damage to the intestinal epithelial cells. This helps the “good nutrient’ absorption aspect.
5. Help fight cancer
Zeolites are considered 100% safe and non-toxic by the fda. This mineral is rough edged, with no positively charged fibrous particulates. Zeolites can trigger specific healthy physiological reactions without any unfavorable results.
6. Assist balance ph levels
The system that maintains balance (homeostasis) in the blood and other fluids varies. The kidneys play the main part in keeping this balance by getting rid of hydroxide ions. The system involves buffers. “… zeolites may be anticipated to change the ionic material … the zeolite cage system might exchange for differing excess ions found in the zeolites instant environment. This would have the general effect of buffering the surrounding system and regulating ph to near physiological levels.” Rik j. Deitsch, clinical research monograph.
7. Super antioxidant
Free radicals, or atoms and particles with unpaired electrons, attack cell membranes and as soon as inside attack the dna. Normally these are checked or damaged by antioxidants, but as we age or as antigens increase, the antioxidant network can’t keep up, and cells mutate causing cancer and the production of tumours. Zeolites function as part of the antioxidant network, alleviating some of the work and breaking the oxidative damage chain reaction.
8. Reinforce your cardiovascular system
” as oxygen complimentary radicals travel through the blood, they set the stage for heart, capillary, cerebrovascular, and skeletal muscle illness by making it more difficult for cells to fix themselves … the cage structure of zeolites may help to trap free radicals, therefore inactivating them and preventing further damage to the surrounding tissue.”– ibid. Deitsch.
This process safeguards cell walls and hinders ldl platelet aggregation.
9. Enhance immune system
The lymphatic fluid (carrying protective lymphocytes) and the leukocyte (leukocytes) are an integral part of the immune system’s huge communication process: finding, hindering, swallowing up, killing and removing pathogens, antigens, mutagens and carcinogens (consisting of damaged cells.) Zeolites are likewise antiviral. Zeolites assist this process in diverse physiological methods, using significant biological systems. Zeolites remove damaging compounds, stop devastating attacks of ros, and find and bind pathogens in the circulatory system.
10. Protect membranes
Epithelial cells resemble skin cells in that they are the protective covering of the major organs, capillary and glands. Zeolites, in conjunction with the antioxidant network, protect these essential membranes.
11. Hone mental skill
Oxidative damage can contribute to strokes. Oxygen free radicals also cause iron which is predominately bound to protein. Increased and unchecked levels of iron are commensurate with alzheimer’s illness, dementia and parkinson’s disease. Zeolite is a various type of antioxidant than vitamins a, c, e, and selenium, thought about the network antioxidants. These antioxidants can neutralize free radicals by offering or taking an electron without ending up being hazardous themselves. Zeolite does not act in this manner.
12. Adaptogenic homes
Adaptogen( s) is the existing buzz word in health circles. It’s a recommendation since it adapts in its use. It implies that molecules act, respond and interact with other compounds. The body’s incredible metabolic and digestion processes need these bio-active constituents which serve as enzymes, elements, co-factors, catalysts and agents. Zeolite is utilized by the body in a variety of ways-adapting to the body’s requirements. 
13. Industrial utilizes
Thanks to its unique physical properties, zeolite has actually discovered uses in:.
- Farming: gets rid of smells and helps manage wastewater
- Farming: controls moisture and offers minerals
- Public health and ecology: cleanses water and assists get rid of nuclear waste
- Family: in deodorizing representatives, cleaning items, and personal care
- Chemistry: speeds up chemical reactions
14. Traditional & & medical uses
Standard medication recognizes clay eating (geophagia) as a natural detox method. Zeolite has comparable homes and standard usages.
In contemporary medication, physicians and researchers use zeolite for:.
- Separation and detection of biomarkers
- Managed drug delivery
- Imaging methods such as nmr (nuclear magnetic resonance)
- Skin and bone tissue engineering
- Wound treatment and bleeding control
15. Detox properties
Zeolite can bind and get rid of a large range of toxic substances from the body, drinking water, and waste materials. Its tiny cages and surface charge trap heavy metals, natural and chemical poisons, radioactive aspects, microbes, metabolic items, and more.
Thanks to these powerful detox properties, zeolite can:.
- Reverse oxidative damage
- Maintain a healthy microbiome
- Kill bacteria and viruses
- Boost the levels of minerals and micronutrient
- Repair skin sores and stop bleeding
- For these reasons, it’s frequently used to detox heavy metals and other toxic substances from the body.
Zeolite does it all in the gut without being taken in, which makes it safe for human use with a few noteworthy exceptions (see “side effects & & interactions” below).
Zeolite has a track record as a detox aide because its distinct surface area structure binds to lots of possibly dangerous toxic substances.
More benefits of zeolite
Preliminary research study on zeolite showed excellent outcomes, however strong medical evidence for the majority of conditions is still lacking. The following research studies should motivate more investigation before we make any definite conclusions. Keep in mind to speak with a medical professional before taking zeolite supplements. They can not change medical treatment for any health condition.
Keep in mind: clinoptilolite is the most common type of zeolite for medical usages. All potential advantages refer to clinoptilolite unless specified otherwise.
Unchecked bleeding is the 2nd leading cause of death in serious injuries and accidents.
The us military usages zeolite-based product (quickclot) to stop serious bleeding on the battlefield. Backed up by solid medical evidence and real-life effectiveness, this item has likewise found application in civil medication.
Animal studies have validated its efficacy, too.
A mix containing zeolite and clay (coolclot) significantly reduced bleeding time in pets with a deadly injury. In human blood samples, it improved clotting by 40%.
Clinoptilolite stopped uncontrolled bleeding in nearly 70% of treated rats and increased their opportunity of survival by 60%.
Zeolite is considered an effective thickening assistant to stop extreme bleeding on the battleground. Quick topical application can save lives.
Possibly effective for
In a clinical trial on 33 volunteers, zeolite improved the elimination of aluminum, arsenic, lead, mercury, and other heavy metals. Individuals who took liquid zeolite (30 drops a day) had significantly higher levels of these metals in their urine samples. Lab analysis validated that zeolite wasn’t polluted, attributing the outcomes to heavy metal detox.
In studies on mice, zeolite made it possible for lead elimination and protected the brain from oxidative damage triggered by this heavy metal. It reduced the levels of lead in organs by approximately 91%.
In rats, clinoptilolite stimulated aluminum detox and stopped it from reaching the blood.
Cadmium is another heavy metal that can trigger anemia and hinder different organs. In cadmium-poisoned pigs, zeolite prevented anemia and protected the liver. However, it didn’t impact the cadmium concentration in the kidneys.
Cell studies have actually confirmed the capability of zeolite to bind and get rid of heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, and mercury.
Brain damage & & mood Brain cells are especially sensitive to heavy metal poisoning. Heavy metals can damage neurons and set off anxiety, depression, anger, and attention issues.
The capability of zeolite to detox lead, mercury, aluminum, and other heavy metals makes it an appealing complementary method to those mood disorders. However, no research studies have examined the impact of zeolite on mood yet.
In 12 healthy drinkers, clinoptilolite (5 g) decreased blood levels of alcohol by as much as 43%. It obstructed alcohol absorption when combined with a drink.
In another scientific trial, 25 volunteers took zeolite (2.25 g– 4.5 g) the morning after the “night out.” It was far too late for alcohol detox, however their hangover signs improved by 40-50%.
Aflatoxins may contaminate foods and threaten human health, especially the liver.
Clinoptilolite had the ability to detox chickens from aflatoxin and secure their liver, bile duct, and kidneys. Immune system organs such as the thymus likewise suffered less damage.
Given to cows, zeolite decreased levels of aflatoxin in their milk, which is a major source of human poisoning. In test tubes, zeolite might get rid of aflatoxin from water (60%) and animal feed (80%).
Zeolite secured chickens versus another vicious fungal toxin, ochratoxin a. The animals ate more, put on weight, and recovered quicker.
Zeolite porous structure is a perfect trap for big radioactive components. In rats and sheep, clinoptilolite blocked the absorption of radioactive cesium and minimized its concentration in animals’ organs.
Clinoptilolite can bind radioactive atoms in nuclear waste and help fix this burning ecology concern.
Other toxic substances
Nitrates are contaminants that can pollute drinking water and disrupt the health of people and animals. In cows, zeolite reversed the metabolic damage triggered by nitrates.
Additionally, clinoptilolite detoxed rats from organophosphates (nerve poisons). The truth that some pesticides belong to this group reveals the significance of zeolite detox residential or commercial properties.
Zeolite can bind to various hazardous toxic substances and toxins and avoid them from being taken in and doing damage in the body.
3) gut health
” dripping gut” implies that toxins, microorganisms, and inflammatory molecules can leakage from the gut into the blood stream. This might trigger tiredness, autoimmune illness, depression, and more.
In a scientific trial of 52 endurance athletes, zeolite (1.85 g daily for 12 weeks) tightened the intestinal wall and prevented dripping. It likewise had a moderate anti-inflammatory impact on the gut.
In mice with ulcerative colitis, a kind of ibd, clinoptilolite had the ability to fix gut damage. It showed equally effective as a standard ibd drug (5-aminosalicylic acid). Tests validated that mice didn’t absorb zeolite particles into the bloodstream.
Zeolite showed similar action in a study on pigs with gut inflammation.
The buildup of urea, ammonia, and gases in the gut may lead to ulcerative colitis, ibs, and even colon cancer. High levels of urea in the blood (uremia) can be life-threatening. Zeolite binds both urea and ammonia, possibly providing defense against these gut toxic substances.
According to minimal clinical evidence, zeolite might be helpful in cases of “leaking gut.”
4) gut microbiome
The favorable impact of zeolite on gut bacteria adds to the above benefits however likewise helps relieve diarrhea and enhances total health.
Cuban doctors have developed a drug for diarrhea (enterex) made of clinoptilolite. They proved its safety and efficacy in 4 medical trials and extra cell experiments. The ability of clinoptilolite to restore healthy gut plants played an important role in this result.
When added to chicken feed, zeolite cut the number of damaging bacteria in their gut without disrupting the good bacteria. Chicken contaminated with salmonella, a major reason for food poisonings, recuperated much faster and suffered less oxidative damage.
Another natural zeolite, chabazite, showed comparable action in pets. It even raised the variety of probiotic lactobacillus and bifidobacterium stress while combating digestive pathogens.
In cell studies, zeolite hindered the growth of 2 viral strains (coxsackievirus and echovirus) that invade us through the gut.
Zeolite may promote the growth of advantageous gut germs and inhibit the development of pathogenic germs and infections.
5) oxidative damage
Smoking poisons the entire body and increases the threat of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress plays an essential function in the adverse results of smoking.
In a scientific trial on 85 smokers, clinoptilolite (5.4 g daily for 1 month) potently enhanced antioxidant defense, comparable to vitamin e.
Other types of natural zeolite showed similar results in 25 people: they increased glutathione levels and secured lipids from oxidative damage.
In chickens and diabetic rats, zeolite:
- Enhanced antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase-sod)
- Increased total antioxidant capacity
- Protected the organs from injury
- Zeolite’s capability to bind to contaminants may provide a function in combating oxidative stress.
6) may ease acid reflux and stomach ulcers
In gastroesophageal reflux illness (gerd), acid reflux harms the esophagus, triggering heartburn and other unpleasant symptoms.
In a medical trial on 25 people with gerd, clinoptilolite (1.5 g daily for 2 weeks) relieved heartburn, discomfort, and pain by 45-55%.
The same procedure secured another 23 clients from stomach ulcers caused by a common nsaid drug, naproxen.
Insufficient proof for
The following purported advantages are just supported by minimal, low-quality medical research studies. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of zeolite for any of the below-listed usages. Keep in mind to speak with a medical professional before utilizing zeolite, and never ever use it in place of something your medical professional recommends or recommends.
7) injury healing
In a russian scientific trial, zeolite enhanced the cleansing and recovery of burn wounds and improved general complaints. Important note: clients taken in zeolite and didn’t use it on the wounds. This study doesn’t expose essential information such as dose and sample size.
Zeolite filled with nitric oxide (no) improved wound healing in rats. It eliminated bacteria and fungi while safeguarding skin cells.
Patches with faujasite (natural zeolite) and copper showed similar effects. They also improved oxygen supply and skin regrowth.
Another outstanding mix for wound healing might be zeolite + silver. Spots with silver-zeolite can hinder the development of unsafe microbes, such as:
- Aeruginosa, which can cause hospital-acquired infections
- Coli, known for causing ulcers and infecting injuries
- Aureus and mrsa, hard-to-treat strains of germs
- Yeast albicans
Because of its blood clot and antibacterial activity, some scientists have actually been examining whether zeolite can help with wound healing.
8) cholesterol and blood lipids
In a medical trial on 41 clients, micronized (fine-ground) zeolite reduced blood levels of the “bad” cholesterol (ldl) and blood lipids, while raising the “excellent” cholesterol (hdl). After 8 weeks (6-9 g everyday), these worths enhanced by 20-25%.
The lack of a control group in this research study avoids us from drawing trusted conclusions.
9) oral health
In 11 volunteers, a mouth rinse with silver-zeolite (zeolite packed with silver ions) significantly lowered oral plaque development.
In a cell study, silver-zeolite cut candida albicans growth and acid production, 2 major causes of oral plaque and oral infections.
Additionally, zeolite can remove volatile smells and thus combat bad breath.
10) liver defense
The antioxidant power of zeolite may be important for liver defense.
In rats with partially gotten rid of liver, clinoptilolite offered antioxidant assistance by boosting glutathione and protective enzymes. As a result, blood markers of oxidative damage dropped.
In a cell study, clinoptilolite reversed the liver-damaging effects of adriamycin, an anticancer drug. It suppressed inflammatory proteins (nf-κb, tnf-alpha, and il-1b) and avoided cell death.
As described above (see “detox”), zeolite also secures against liver-damaging aflatoxins.
Zeolite’s antioxidant activity and capability to bind contaminants may provide it a role in liver health. 
- Fibrosis (boost in fibrous tissue)
- Pneumoconiosis (breathing illness)
- Mesothelioma cancer (exposure to erionite, a kind of air-borne fibrous zeolite, is connected with high incidence of mesothelioma) 
The dosing description
As far as i can tell there are 2 primary factors that a greater dosage of zeolite is more secure and more effective than a lower dose.
Reason one- level of affinity. Zeolite has a strong negative charge and thus is brought in to favorably charged particles. Given that the majority of toxic substances, such as heavy metals, radiation, and pesticides, are favorably charged, zeolite is pulled to the toxins, like a magnet, and draws them up into its structure. This makes zeolite a reliable detox method for a variety of poisonous elements. But the secret here is that zeolite is more drawn in to specific toxic components than others. For example, zeolite has a greater affinity for lead than for mercury. So let’s state the zeolite enters your blood stream and binds to mercury. Then it continues through the blood stream and discovers some lead. The zeolite will drop the mercury and bind to the lead due to the fact that it is more attracted to the lead. If a high dose of zeolite was taken in then there is probably adequate extra zeolite in the blood to get the dropped mercury. If a low dosage was taken the mercury may be redistrubed and result in a detox reaction. Note- this is one factor that staying on zeolite for an extended amount of time might be very important. It might take months before the zeolite really starts successfully detoxing mercury depending upon how many other contaminants remain in your body that are the priority for zeolite.
Reason two- zeolite in the gut. Particle size is important. Numerous zeolite products boast a small particle size however do not have the ability to capture toxins in the gut. Instead of using one particle size, our zeolite range from 0 to 40 microns with 80% of the micron particles being less than 10 microns and the other 20% being from 10-40 microns. This variety in microns guarantees a more complete full-body detox. Smaller sized zeolite particles are carried into the bloodstream for cellular detox, while the bigger particles remain in the digestion tract to act as a binder. This provides a more balanced detox and decreases die off reactions common with lots of zeolite supplements. So the higher the dose of zeolite, the more big zeolite particles are left in the gut to act as a binder. 
Factors to consider
As zeolite journeys through the body it might cause dehydration so it is important to consume extra water and keep the body properly hydrated. Just zeolites in their purest kind ought to be taken. Naturally mined zeolite contains lots of toxic minerals and it’s important to study the cleansing process and what substances have actually been added to the end product prior to acquiring. It’s always better to go for a product that has been evaluated by a third party lab. 
- Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling
- Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection
- Prevent breathing dust/fume/gas/ mist/vapors/spray
- Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated location