Dietary anti-oxidants such as beta carotene, ascorbic acid, and vitamin E are called the least hazardous and most holistically helpful supplements with antioxidant capacity. Vitamin C supplements are particularly offered over-the-counter due to the fact that they are entirely safe to consume.
All we know normally about vitamin C is that it can benefit bad injury recovery and bleeding gums, guarantee healthy skin, and increase resistance such as against the cold. The supplements are more than just producers of connective tissue. They are the picked by health professionals to improve iron absorption in iron deficiency anemia. Intravenous vitamin C supplements enhance cardiovascular health and benefit breast cancer.
There is a lot more to preserving a maximum vitamin C content, which we will be discussing in detail in this short article.
Health Advantages of Vitamin C Supplementation
National Institutes of Health professionals have advised the consumption of vitamin C in addition to other antioxidant vitamin consumption for all ages as a milestone for national health. Diet plan and lifestyle these days are easily conducive to cardiovascular risk. Vegetables and fruits can not make up for the needs of the body for antioxidant supplementation.
Here we have combined all the health advantages of vitamin C supplements for numerous conditions and for normal, healthy individuals:
Function of Plasma Vitamin C against Viral and Bacterial Diseases
Vitamin C administration has actually been seen to improve the response of the body to bacterial and viral diseases in the body. Its function as a dietary supplement versus virus-induced respiratory diseases is of special importance.
Randomized scientific trials have actually shown that plasma vitamin C can significantly reduce the period of respiratory infections such as colds and influenza. Also, the intensity of the signs is less in clients who took the supplements. Nevertheless, research has not yet proved if vitamin C might altogether prevent or treat breathing or viral infections such as the common cold.
The anti-inflammatory function and immune-boosting advantages of vitamin C play a vital function in keeping back viral and bacterial illness. This is how the supplements can prevent cold and influenza from advancing into pneumonia or devastating lung infections.
In a placebo-controlled trial, intake of vitamin C supplements lowered the occurrence of viral respiratory illness by 8 percent in adults and 18 percent in kids. Patients in the ICU report decreased plasma levels of vitamin C. And supplements with vitamin C has actually revealed a reducing of their period on the ventilator.
These truths are important in understanding and managing the novel COVID-19 illness. A research study including 19 active COVID-19 clients revealed that 18 out of 19 patients had undetectable plasma levels of vitamin C.
Vitamin C might Reduce the Threat of Cancer
The meta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials showed that higher dietary vitamin C can have a multi-faceted relate to all kinds of cancer danger and occurrence. A study including almost 45 thousand people showed a 26 percent decrease in cancer danger for each 50 μmol/ L increase in the ascorbic concentration in the blood.
Plasma concentrations of vitamin C are closely interlinked with the danger and occurrence of lung and breast cancer. Meta-analysis of 21 mate and case-control randomized controlled trials showed that when an individual starts smoking, the vitamin C levels in the body begin to reduce.
The very same observation has been made in clients with lung cancer. Given that smoking cigarettes and lung cancer have a relationship of cause and effect, we can securely say that lung cancer advancement is likewise based on lower-than-normal serum levels of vitamin C.
Vitamin C consumption has been connected to the occurrence and survival of breast cancer. Its high consumption has been shown to reduce the threat of breast cancer in high-risk individuals, such as those with a hereditary predisposition and post-menopausal females. More than avoidance of breast cancer, vitamin C intake is connected with decreasing mortality and recurrence of the illness.
The most high-yield effect of vitamin C supplements in the treatment and management of cancer is their cytotoxic effect. Vitamin C catalyzes a series of responses that lead to the development of hydrogen peroxide, which is toxic to cancer cells.
In one research study, high-dose ascorbic acid also reported beneficial impacts in improving the radiosensitivity of some cancer cells. Intravenous vitamin C has actually shown better results than oral ascorbic acid for such benefits.
Vitamin C Benefits your Skin in Multiple Ways
The most prominent advantage of vitamin C is because of its antioxidant results. It is the most powerful and the most plentiful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in the skin. To start with, it safeguards against the skin damage caused by the reactive totally free radicals and the UV rays of the sun.
When UV rays of the sun fall on the skin, superoxide and peroxide representatives are created from the cell membranes of the skin cells. Vitamin C directly reduces the effects of these destructive representatives.
The UV-protective role of Vitamin C indirectly also secures against photoaging of the skin. These UV rays can likewise harm the DNA of the skin cell nuclei and insert thymine dimers, which brings anomaly. This mutation is the main offender behind the devastating illness Xeroderma pigmentosum.
Thus, vitamin C plays a protective function versus skin cancers caused by UV damage. It can serve as a potent anti-inflammatory agent for skin problem such as acne and rosacea. It straight prevents the NF-KB path, which produces the inflammation-causing representatives.
By hindering the production of inflammatory representatives such as the growth necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8, body vitamin C can reduce the inflammatory contributors of acne. This system is not just advantageous for those with acne, however it also slows the aging of typical, healthy skin.
Vitamin C is the best depigmentation representative your skin can use. Vitamin C prevents melanogenesis, unlike other depigmenting agents that damage and kill melanocytes. That means it just communicates with the process and does not trigger long-term damage to crucial hormone-producing cells of the brain.
Vitamin C enhances the skin barrier and, in this way, it also assists in injury healing. The primary mechanism of skin-strengthening is promoting collagen synthesis by straight stimulating collagen gene expression. Besides, Vitamin C solutions are offered for topical usage and are entirely safe for intake.
These advantages of vitamin C for the skin are not complementary. Rather, they are vital for typical skin advancement and health. That is why its deficiency is a threat factor for several skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and porphyria cutanea tarda. Likewise, the supplements can assist deal with these illness in addition to the herpes zoster and deadly melanoma of the skin.
Vitamin C Supplements Advantage the Eye
Age-related macular degeneration is a sluggish and chronic process associated with atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, age, and vitamin shortages. The central part of the retina goes through sluggish degeneration and loses its optimal function.
Vitamin C can minimize the risk of cataracts in high-risk clients such as older adults. This takes place by the collagen synthesis results of vitamin C. Collagen reinforces the structure of the eye and supplies stability versus age-related macular degeneration.
Its adequate levels in the plasma would stop the generalized inflammation and atherosclerosis in the blood vessels and hence likewise prevent age-related macular degeneration.
Another system of action of vitamin C is by combating versus the reactive oxygen species and the harmful totally free radicals. Really, the blood vessels providing the retina of the eye are end arteries. They have blind ends and do not offer further branches in the retina. Once the damage takes place, the retinal tissues are harmed and die immediately, and there will be no other way back.
Vision loss, threat of cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration all connect to persistent inflammatory conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure. The lens of the eye itself is immersed in an ocular fluid abundant in vitamin C. In both these circumstances, vitamin C has the same anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory role.
Cognitive Benefits of Vitamin C Supplements
Vitamin C plays a necessary function in the collagen synthesis processes, reinforcing the connective tissue throughout the body. It is likewise involved in the synthesis of some very essential physiological compounds such as carnitine, cholesterol, amino acids, and proteins. But its main function that benefits cognitive function is its antioxidant impact.
Vitamin C oxidizes itself and neutralizes the reactive oxygen species and superoxide radicals. In this manner, it protects cellular DNA, membrane proteins, and lipids from the oxidative damage of the extremely harmful free radicals.
By these major impacts, vitamin C secures the hippocampus versus aging, oxidative damage, and loss of function and improves memory. There are various other mechanisms, too: vitamin C is directly involved in the maturation and differentiation of the neurons. It is an important cofactor associated with forming myelin sheaths of the nerves, speeding up the nerve impulse conduction throughout the neurons.
Vitamin C is also involved in synthesizing the essential neurotransmitter dopamine for serotonin and after that facilitates the release of neurotransmitters. These observations have actually caused the use of vitamin C in the diet and drug routines for peripheral neuropathy.
Peripheral neuropathy is a condition characterized by damage to the nerves in the limbs, mostly found in late-stage diabetics. Considering that the retina of the eye is also thought about a part of the central nerve system, those mechanisms likewise recommend its use for eye health.
Patients with Post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) report low serum levels of vitamin C. And hence supplementation with ascorbic acid can assist manage the syndrome much better.
PTSD is the outcome of single prolonged stress (SPS), which has actually been seen to increase the level of oxidized glutathione and increase the lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus.
A study compared the vitamin C levels in between the cognitively undamaged and the cognitively impaired groups of people. The outcomes showed that cognitively undamaged or superior people had higher mean concentrations of vitamin C than the cognitively impaired ones.
Vitamin C may Manage Hypertension
According to the Johns Hopkins School University of Medication, high vitamin C consumption for 2 months reduced the systolic blood pressure by nearly 4 points usually and the diastolic blood pressure by 1.5 points.
The doses utilized for this study were around 500 milligrams daily, whereas the suggested dietary consumption for adults is 90 milligrams of ascorbic acid per day.
You see, vitamin C is a naturally discovered micronutrient and is water-soluble. Our body can not maintain or store for long period of time. So, to gain from vitamin C for chronic illness such as hypertension, it must be taken routinely.
Vitamin C can not replace blood pressure medications to treat high blood pressure. But the most effective treatment for hypertension is the lifestyle modifications such as diet plan and exercise, and vitamin C can greatly contribute there.
Hypertension, specifically as a consequence of diabetes mellitus, can likewise speed up the age-related macular degeneration in the eye. Preserving regular ascorbic acid concentrations throughout life can avoid and protect against such persistent inflammatory conditions and their issues.
Vitamin C may secure versus Cardiovascular Diseases
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of vitamins is incredibly useful versus the danger, morbidity, and mortality of the cardiovascular disease, and at the same time enhances cardiovascular health in regular, healthy people. This is due to the fact that ascorbic acid can prevent atherosclerosis and arterial tightness and improve lipid profile and endothelial function by neutralizing reactive oxygen types.
Vitamin C has actually been seen to potentiate the production and effects of vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide safeguards the capillary versus vasoconstriction, myogenic spasms, and coagulation abnormalities.
Stroke, cardiovascular heart problem, and cardiac arrest are all straight connected to the antioxidant status of a person. By safeguarding the capillary and heart vasculature against oxidative damage, dietary antioxidants, including vitamin C, can truly help improve the quality of life and morbidity in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
A study followed a group of individuals for 10 years to conclude the association of plasma vitamin C concentrations with cardiovascular disease. It concluded that the people using synthetic or natural vitamin C sources had a 25 % lower threat of establishing cardiovascular disease.
Its high dosage, 500 mg of vitamin C daily, reported a higher decrease in the danger elements of heart disease and enhanced the overall cardiovascular health. An analysis of practically 200 research studies concluded that taking vitamin C reduced the blood levels of LDL cholesterol by 7.9 mg/dL and triglycerides by 20 mg/dL.
For a lot more advantages versus cardiovascular disease and typically enhanced cardiovascular health, some scientists recommend vitamin C intake, not supplements. Significant food sources consist of vegetables and fruits, specifically citrus fruits.
Women’s antioxidant cardiovascular research study stated that antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin C, beta carotene, and vitamin E are specifically practical in post-menopausal women when it pertains to cardiovascular health. Vitamin C sources should be a necessary dietary regimen in women of age above 45.
Benefits of Taking Vitamin C with Meals
Intake of vitamin C with foods abundant in iron increases the absorption of iron by 67 %. Dietary supplements for iron are exceptionally costly. However the same iron is life-saving for clients with iron shortage anemia, road traffic mishaps, extreme blood loss, and anemic babies.
iron deficiency anemia is a serious condition in children and infants which hinders the development of red cell in the body. Leukocyte vitamin C concentration drops inclining the specific to the danger of serious infections.
Individuals can develop iron shortage anemia quickly without visible signs and symptoms. Dangerous groups consist of:
- Pregnant and child-bearing females
- Professional athletes running for marathons
- Pure vegetarians
- Teenagers and quickly growing children
- Individuals who contribute blood regularly
Other high-risk groups include those with celiac illness with impaired iron absorption. All these groups can take advantage of artificial vitamin C or food sources of ascorbic acid, mainly citrus fruits. Taking vitamin C with meals will help make the most of iron absorption from your diet.
Intravenous ascorbic acid can likewise benefit individuals going through hemodialysis with severe or persistent kidney failure. Their kidneys are too damaged to produce adequate erythropoietin, and improving vitamin C status can assist the body utilize the maximum of its resources.
Vitamin C might Decrease Uric Acid Levels
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Avoidance (CDC), gout is a condition defined by increased uric acid levels in the blood, which then deposit in the joint cavities. For gout, anything that can decrease the levels of urates in the body will assist manage and deal with gout.
A friend study that followed its sample people for twenty years and included 47000 guys studied how vitamin C and ascorbic acid levels in the blood associate with the danger, occurrence, and morbidity of gout. The study discovered that taking antioxidant supplementation such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene decreased the danger of gout in prone people.
Another study conducted in 2018 found that individuals who took more vitamin C than the recommended dietary allowance had lower uric acid levels than those who did not. These outcomes recommend the usage and effectiveness of antioxidant vitamins such as ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and ascorbic acid for a better lifestyle for gout clients.
Apart from gout patients, vitamin C minimizes urate levels in normal, healthy individuals, as concluded by a research study performed in 2011. If you consume a great deal of meat, you can use sources of vitamin C along with to escape the negative impacts of excess urate in the body.
According to the nutrition evaluation study, gout is an inflammatory disease closely connected to the diet plan and foods. Once it embeds in, it rapidly progresses to impairment. However antioxidant supplements such as oral vitamin C can help a good deal slow the process down.
Also, since this illness uses and depletes the vitamin C levels, screening ascorbic acid in the body may help evaluate the development and phase of the disease too.
Oral Vitamin C Assists Boost Resistance
This is probably the most documented health benefit of taking the water-soluble vitamin C. Vitamin C may boost and enhance the resistance of your body at various levels and in different systems.
Firstly, ascorbic acid supplements directly increases the production of leukocyte, especially differentiated T lymphocytes. Oral vitamin or intravenous ascorbic acid can increase the production of double-positive T cells from the cells of the bone marrow, which is quite high-yield in immunocompromised individuals.
Plasma vitamin C levels not just increase the production and variety of active immune cells it also assists their function by battling a few of their fights. For example, plasma vitamin C can fight and neutralize the reactive oxygen types and other harmful totally free radicals. And this not just protects the cells and their membranes however also protects the leukocyte content for bigger fights.
The above two functions can be carried out by any dietary vitamin or antioxidant supplements with antioxidant results such as vitamin E or beta-carotene compounds. A distinct effect of vitamin C is their role in the skin barrier.
Lower vitamin C concentrations have actually been related to low injury healing, a weak skin barrier, and an increased danger of skin infection. As discussed above, ascorbic acid is an essential part of the collagen biosynthesis path. Hence, low vitamin C levels lead to weak gums and vulnerable skin barriers.
In addition to strengthening the physical skin barrier, Vitamin C can enhance the skin defences with their antioxidant residential or commercial properties. These two systems are the foundation of injury healing in the skin and the prevention of infection.
Recommended mg of Vitamin C
Dietary referral consumption for different ages are different. Suggested dietary vitamin C consumption level for an infant as much as 12 months of age falls in the series of 25 to 30 mg daily. And breast milk suffices to please the Vitamin C requirements of an infant.
If the baby can not be breastfed, it is important to feed him strengthened artificial feed with appropriate vitamin C levels. Its consumption is necessary for the baby for blood cell production, battling infection, and sufficient development.
For kids of age up to 8 years, the recommended dietary intake is around 35 mg per day. A high dosage might be needed in some cases, such as when kids of this age present with iron shortage anemia.
For teens of age as much as 18 years, it is advised that the day-to-day consumption must be around 40 mg per day. High doses are safe, but an upper intake level of 1800 mg each day has been recommended.
For grownups of age as much as 70 years, RDI levels of 45 mg daily have actually been recommended. Vitamin C is not just important for adults to prevent significant cardiovascular occasions and age-related macular degeneration, however it likewise offers a holistic uplifting of general health also.
The advised dosage of vitamin C supplements increases for pregnant and breast feeding moms, and it can barely be fulfilled with fruits and vegetables.
Exist any Adverse Effects of Vitamin C Consumption?
Supplemental vitamin C is totally safe for usage in the recommended dosages for the respective age in healthy individuals. In fact, ascorbic acid is counted among the most safe nutrient consumption in the form of supplements.
Firstly, vitamin C is a water-soluble extra vitamin. Besides, vitamin C supplements have a wide range for the upper consumption level. The liver does not save a big quantity of it, and the kidneys get rid of everything the time. So, you will not need to fret about the side effects of vitamin C intakes if you are taking them in a moderate, recommended dose range.
A common understanding about vitamin C administration is that when the shortage happens, the individual gets scurvy. At the same time, taking more of it will cause kidney stone development. neither of these is totally real nor is entirely false. We will establish this in a later discussion.
Sources of Vitamin C
Fresh vegetables and fruits are the richest sources of vitamin C. They should be taken raw since vitamin C can not survive with its antioxidant homes in heat, such as when cooked.
The following are the most popular and richest sources:
- Indian gooseberry
- Citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, tomatoes
- Green leafy vegetables, mainly broccoli
- Kiwifruit, strawberries, and cantaloupes
- Red and green peppers
Fruit juices are also an excellent source along with some animal sources which include animal liver. Because animals manufacture their own ascorbic acid and it is kept in the liver, meat enthusiasts can enjoy ascorbic acid supplements with raw animal liver, raw fish, and eggs.
As discussed prior to as well, taking vitamin C with meals, such as having a citrus fruit juice or green peppers, is the best way to optimize the absorption of the nutrients from the meal. Plant sources of vitamin c are more abundant and easily readily available. To utilize the animal sources, you might need to eat raw animal products, which is so challenging!
Symptoms and signs of Vitamin C Deficiency
Low vitamin C content can provide with the following symptoms and signs:
- Its inadequate consumption for three to five months will lead to keratosis pilaris, which is a condition identified by loss of connective tissue in the skin. You will establish chicken skin with bumps in the locations of arms, legs, and buttocks.
- Serious absence of vitamin C is connected with cognitive deficit, mood modifications, and depression. A meta-analysis of a number of randomized regulated trials proved that scurvy is straight associated with cognitive problems and depression in the patients.
- Low levels lead to the individual sensation tired, tired out, and weak all the time. Due to the interaction of the ascorbic acid with the neurotransmitters of the brain, low levels result in excessive lethargy.
- Dry and damaged skin with a dull skin tone can also present as an indication of low vitamin C levels.
- One major and a frequently understood indication of extreme shortage of vitamin C is that the skin contusions quickly. Blood vessels hemorrhage with simply a small push, and you see blood seeping below the skin, forming a swelling.
- Healthcare professionals particularly recommend high dosages of vitamin C for clients of surgery and roadway traffic accidents because its deficiency can immediately cause poor wound recovery and superimposed infection.
- Joints are a connective-tissue-rich region of the body. Extreme deficiency of vitamin C causes weak joints that ache on strolling a little range. Joints may bleed and present with swelling.
- Severe shortage can also lead to impaired bone development in kids and weak bones in adults.
- Bleeding gums on the smallest touch and subsequent missing teeth are significant repercussions of deficiency.
- Lack of vitamin C leads to the individual experiencing more frequent episodes of common cold and flu, and they last for longer periods as well. The risk and morbidity of respiratory infections significantly increase with its deficiency due to the fact that there is a decline in the basic resistance of the body.
- Deficient people may experience unusual weight gain due to increased swelling and slowed metabolic process of the body.
What will take place if I take too much Vitamin C?
Cases of vitamin C overload in the body are unusual. The tolerable upper consumption level is around 1200 to 15oo mg each day for grownups. And the signs begin to appear just when the intake exceeds 2000 mg each day.
Excess vitamin C in the body is only possible when it comes to deliberate intoxication. If somebody takes oral supplements exceeding 2000 mg each day, the following might happen:
- Patients with chronic kidney illness can quickly develop too much vitamin C in the body because of impaired clearance. And it can also lead to kidney stones at the same time. Healthcare providers hence need to observe discretion in prescribing vitamin C supplements to a client with kidney stones or kidney disease.
- Kidney stones are a later representation of taking a lot of vitamin C supplements. Early signs and symptoms present as diarrhea and nausea.
- Vitamin C can not damage your body for long unless the overdose continues. Meanwhile, it can cause iron overload as we know that vitamin C supplementation dramatically increases the absorption of iron from meals.
- People taking vitamin C supplementation for age-related macular degeneration may likewise have borderline diabetes. For factors that are not known, overdose can worsen diabetes mellitus.
Who can Develop Vitamin C Deficiency?
Vitamin C is a dietary vitamin with antioxidant residential or commercial properties. It is perfectly readily available in our daily diet plan, generally fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables, nevertheless, should be taken raw because vitamin C loses its functional structure throughout heating and cooking.
So, primarily the following groups of people are at threat of establishing low vitamin C levels:
- The deficiency is a really common incident in individuals going through dialysis. Dialytic vitamin C clearance and generalized swelling diminish its levels in the body.
- Poor nutrition is the greatest reason for developing low vitamin C levels throughout the world. Diets with low levels of vitamin C rapidly incline the body to establish the symptoms and signs of deficiency.
- Individuals who eat simply the needful however do not integrate fresh vegetables and fruits. Raw vegetables and fruits are the most abundant and most likely the only authentic dietary source, apart from the supplements.
- You are consuming vegetables and fruits, however they are constantly cooked or steamed. Cooking and heating kill the practical vitamin C in the body. This case, too, is a threat aspect for developing the shortage.
- Smoking cigarettes is another aspect that increases the risk of establishing the deficiency. Cigarette smokers have low vitamin C levels in the body due to the fact that they utilize them up quicker.
- Extreme and persistent alcohol addiction gives rise to vitamin C deficiency much faster than anything else. It can occur in numerous methods: increased urine excretion of ascorbic acid, reduced absorption due to chronic diarrhea consequent to alcohol addiction, malnutrition, and a diet with low vitamin C levels due to self-neglect.
- Individuals with burns or who have actually gone through a significant surgery may also establish the signs or signs of shortage because such stress circumstances consume the circulating vitamin C content of the body.
Uses of Intravenous Vitamin C
Vitamin C is an antioxidant vitamin that soaks up easily and has practically no adverse effects. In some situations, its intravenous type might be the preferred type of antioxidant vitamin supplements. Some professionals also utilize intravenous vitamin c supplementation for self-neglecting patients who won’t take oral supplements daily.
By and large, the following are some scenarios where health specialists use intravenous vitamin c supplements:
- Health care experts use high-dose vitamin C injections for rapid wound healing. Intravenous injections of 200 mg of vitamin C are offered daily for a week to sustain high doses of ascorbic acid in the blood. This helps in fast healing, severe blood loss in a mishap, or healing of the wounds of surgical treatment.
- Dietary supplements or high vitamin C consumption may be prescribed for weight loss and weight reduction as well.
- High dosages of vitamin C are injected in immunocompromised clients such as those with help. Such clients are at high danger of establishing infection and vitamin C can assist improve immunity.
- Intravenous supplements of vitamin C can be utilized to back the function and effects of chemotherapy for cancer.
- Clients who provide with some chronic disease such as arthritis or gout may utilize high-dose vitamin C supplementation for a better quality of life.
- Bleeding gums and regular tooth loss can take advantage of the collagen-producing and ant-oxidant properties of high-dose vitamin C supplementation.
- Specialists prescribe high doses of vitamin C supplements to those at risk for establishing heart disease risk. The high dose can generally enhance cardiovascular health too in normal, healthy people.
Forms of Oral Supplemental Vitamin C
Common kinds of artificial vitamin C consist of sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, and other mineral ascorbic acid forms. Antioxidant vitamin C frequently is available in combination with other anti-oxidants and vitamin supplementations such as beta carotene. Such antioxidant vitamins, when integrated, supply a synergistic effect.
All kinds of vitamin C exist in natural sources such as fresh fruits and vegetables, particularly green peppers and citrus fruits.
The Bottom Line
Taking around 40 mg of Vitamin C from a young age will assist battle swelling and improve development. More than the recommended dose in mg of vitamin C is just prescribed by your healthcare provider in certain conditions such as those talked about above. Excessive vitamin C is an unusual incident as is the threat of low levels. Otherwise, select supplements that have minimum negative effects.