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Schisandra

    The plant genus Schisandra consists of 19 species; of the 12 that are endemic in China,1 there are 2 main species– Schisandra chinensis and S. sphenanthera. These are utilized interchangeably in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the exact same signs at the same dosage.2 Both are deciduous climbers with a medium rate of growth, with S. chinensis growing to about 29 feet (9 meters) and S. sphenanthera growing to 23 feet (7 meters). Both have clusters of little white flowers in April through May, followed by red berries. S. sphenanthera fruit ripens July through September, while S. chinensis fruit ripens a little later, August through October. Both species are exported and traded under the genus and standardized common name schisandra.

    The Chinese common name for schisandra is wu wei zi, which describes the 5 flavors of the fruits– wu (五, “five”) wei (味, “taste”) zi (子, “fruit and seed”). Depending upon the species, the common name wu wei zi is preceded by a qualifying prefix. For instance, S. chinensis, or northern schisandra, is separated as bei wu wei zi (bei indicates northern), and S. sphenanthera, or southern schisandra, is distinguished as nan wu wei zi (nan means southern).

    Southern schisandra is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, and only one sex is discovered on any given plant) and primarily grows in broad-leaved forests in temperate and subtropical areas of main and southern China at altitudes of 2300-6560 feet (700-2000 meters). Northern schisandra is monoecious (both male and female flowers are born upon the same plant) and commonly takes place in deciduous and coniferous forests of northeastern China at elevations of 3937-5577 feet (1200-1700 meters), in addition to in parts of North Korea, far northern Japan, and the Russian Far East (RFE).

    The majority of the industrial supply of southern schisandra is wild-collected in the Chinese provinces of Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu, while the supply of northern schisandra originates from both wild collection and wild-simulated cultivation mainly from the northeastern provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang. Schisandra marketed with a protected geographical indication (PGI) designation is generally viewed to be of the highest quality and fetches the highest rates. Some wild collection also happens in parts of neighboring North Korea and Siberia, primarily for domestic usage, although a percentage is exported to China.

    History and cultural significance

    Given that the two species of Schisandra gone over in this article are utilized interchangeably in TCM, associated usages apply to both types unless specified otherwise.

    The first tape-recorded use of schisandra is in the early Chinese organic medication text Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the Divine Husbandman’s Classic Materia Medica. It was believed to be one of the exceptional medications that would “lengthen life without aging” and was stated to increase energy, deal with cough and fatigue, and function as a male sexual tonic.

    The dried fruit of schisandra is stated to be entirely balanced since it exhibits all five classically acknowledged tastes in Chinese herbalism, hence its Chinese name meaning five-flavored fruit. The skin and pulp are both sweet and sour; the seed is pungent and bitter; and the fruit overall is salty. It is utilized as a tonic and sedative, and for the treatment of stress and anxiety, asthma and chronic cough, diarrhea, dream-disturbed sleep, regular urination, insomnia, night sweats, and palpitations.

    Conditions showing the following symptoms are treated with schisandra: dry cough, dull complexion, tiredness, labored breathing or shortness of breath, and weak point. It is likewise used in combination with other herbs to inhibit sweating, eliminate wasting and thirst, and to treat spermatorrhea (involuntary discharge of semen), nocturnal emissions, and urinary incontinence. In TCM, schisandra is said to have warm residential or commercial properties, to act upon the heart, lung, and kidney channels, and to have the following actions: anti-bacterial, analgesic, antitussive and expectorant, cardiotonic, central nervous system and uterine stimulant, bile secretion promotion, and gastric secretion inhibition.

    Different qualities and values are assigned to schisandra fruits of various geographical origins. One of the more well-known is “Fushun Liao Schisandra,” produced only in certain ecoregions of Liaoning province. For schisandra to be identified and marketed with a PGI designation, the berries should be produced in compliance with technical requirements and quality specs established by China’s General Administration of Quality Guidance, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ).

    This is one example of “geoherbalism,” a crucial principle in TCM that associates making use of “geo-authentic” (referred to as daodi) medicinal products with the highest clinical effectiveness. Daodi herbs account for the greatest volume and economic value of botanicals used in TCM; of the 500 most frequently used Chinese medicinal plants, about 200 are categorized as products of daodi origin, which represent about 80% of total medicinal plant usage in regards to volume. In China, there is a relationship in between the practice of geoherbalism and intellectual property laws governing items of “geographical indicator” (GI). As such, geoherbalism can be safeguarded as “conventional Chinese medical understanding” under the GI regulative framework.

    Additionally, for use of schisandra fruit as an active component in medicines, quality standards monographs for both species have been released in the Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards, Vol. 4 (HKCMMS, 2012) and in The Pharmacopoeia of individuals’s Republic of China (PPRC, 2010). Furthermore, for northern schisandra only, quality essays are available in the current editions of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur. 8.0), Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP XVI), Korean Pharmacopoeia (KP X), United States Pharmacopeia Herbal Medicines Compendium (USP-HMC Variation 1.0, 2015), and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol. 3 (2007 ). The informal American Herbal Pharmacopoeia also provides quality requirements and analytical techniques. [2]

    What are the kinds of Schisandra?

    Schisandrins A, B, and C are bioactive chemical compounds. They’re drawn out from the berries of the Schisandra plant. These may be suggested to you by a doctor, and can be taken in powdered, pill, or liquid form.

    Schisandra can also be bought as dried entire berries or as juice.

    Schisandra is likewise readily available as a supplement in numerous kinds. These consist of dried powder, pills, extracts, and elixirs. Supplements usually include an advised dosage on the packaging for you to follow. [3]

    How It Functions

    Historically in TCM, schisandra was utilized to promote a balance in between yin and yang. It’s said to assist “calm the heart and quiet the spirit” by positively impacting the brain, kidneys, liver and lungs.

    While it’s been used for generations safely and successfully, very few human trials have been performed utilizing schisandra. Those that have show it’s powerful at improving liver function, reducing fatty liver illness and combating chronic hepatitis C virus. Other studies reveal that it’s a natural tension reducer, improves performance of cognitive jobs and decreases digestion symptoms associated with liver transplants.

    The most important active constituents of schisandra include:.

    • schizandrin
    • deoxyschizandrin
    • schisanheno
    • schizandrol
    • sesquicarene
    • citral
    • stigmasterol
    • anti-oxidants consisting of vitamins C and E

    Schisandra is a complicated herb, and there are several mechanisms by which these constituents might act like phytoadaptogens, affecting the main nervous, understanding, endocrine, immune, respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Research has revealed that schisandra assists stall the procedure of oxidative stress, which contributes to almost every illness there is and leads to the loss of healthy cells, tissues and organs.

    It also shows strong antioxidant activities that favorably affect capillary, smooth muscles, the release of fatty acids into the blood stream (such as arachidonic acid) and the biosynthesis of inflammatory compounds. This results in healthier blood cells, arteries, capillary and enhanced circulation. This is one reason schisandra helps increase endurance, accuracy of movement, psychological efficiency, fertility and working capacity even when someone is under tension.

    According to a report released in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, a great deal of medicinal and clinical studies performed over the past five decades recommend that schisandra increases physical working capacity and has strong stress-protective impacts against a broad spectrum of hazardous elements. Amongst its many uses, research studies have actually discovered it helps avoid swelling, reverse heavy metal intoxification, improve loss of movement– plus recover heat shock, skin burns, frostbite, hormone conditions and heart problem.

    A 2015 research study released by the Department of Korean Medicine at Dongguk University found that schisandra fruit favorably modulates gut microbiota in a manner that assists avoid different metabolic syndrome danger elements, along with potentially weight gain.

    After studying markers associated with metabolic diseases in 28 overweight ladies as part of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled research study done over 12 weeks, the scientists found that compared to placebo, schisandra had a greater influence on lipid metabolic process and modulation of gut microbiota that led to a decrease in waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood sugar and triglycerides levels.

    Bacteroides and bacteroidetes were 2 forms of microbiota increased by schisandra that showed substantial unfavorable connections with fat mass. Ruminococcus was another microbiota decreased by schidandra, which led to a decline of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood sugar.

    Health Advantages

    1. Lowers Inflammation

    Thanks to its high concentration of antioxidant substances, schisandra helps battle free radical damage and reduces inflammatory responses– which are at the root of modern-day diseases like cancer, diabetes and heart disease. Free radicals threaten our health due to the fact that they turn on and off certain genes, cause cellular and tissue damage, and accelerate the aging procedure.

    Due to its capability to favorably impact the body immune system and fight inflammation, schisandra seems to assist stall the development of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), balances blood glucose, avoids diabetes and bring the body into an ideal acid-base balance.

    When it pertains to cancer avoidance, active lignans have actually been isolated from schisandra (specifically one called schisandrin A) that have chemo-protective capabilities. Research studies that have actually examined the effects of schisandra on organs, tissues, cells and enzymes have actually exposed it assists manage the release of leukocytes, which promote inflammation, and improves the ability to repair tissue. It likewise positively affects platelet-activating aspects, metabolic process, oxygen consumption, bone development and the tolerance of toxic substance exposure.

    According to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, studies utilizing animals recommend that schisandra increases hepatic glutathione levels and glutathione reductase activities, downregulates inflammatory cytokines, triggers the eNOS path, exhibits apoptosis (death of hazardous cells), and enhances cell expansion.

    2. Supports Adrenal Function, Helping Us Deal with the Effects of Stress

    Called an adaptogenic agent, schisandra assists balance hormonal agents naturally and for that reason enhances our capability to deal with stressors, both physical and mental.

    Adaptogenic herbs and superfoods have actually been utilized for countless years to naturally raise the body’s resistance to environmental stress, stress and anxiety, contaminant exposure, psychological trauma, psychological fatigue and mental illnesses. Because schisandra helps support the adrenal glands and rejects an overproduction of “tension hormonal agents” like cortisol, it’s linked with much better psychological abilities, physical endurance and metabolic health.

    In 2007, the Swedish Herbal Institute Research and Development department checked the effects of adaptogen herbs consisting of rhodiola, ginseng and schisandra on blood levels of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK), nitric oxide (NO), cortisol, testosterone, prostaglandin, leukotriene and thromboxane in rats.

    Scientist figured out that over a seven-day period, when rats were offered frequent supplementation of adaptogens/stress-protective herbs, they experienced near-steady levels of NO and cortisol regardless of increased quantities of tension.

    The findings suggest that repressive impacts of these adaptogens make them natural antidepressants that have favorable results on hormones and brain functions even when under tension and tiring conditions. Do not forget there’s likewise a link in between lower amounts of tension and better immune function: The more tension we’re under, the less capable we are of defending ourselves from illness.

    With the help of adaptogens, the body spares bodily energy to be used for functions like reproductive health, skin repairment, visual function, cardiovascular health, and avoiding infections like the influenza (influenza), persistent sinus problems and even colds.

    3. Enhances Liver Function and Digestive Health

    Much of the anecdotal research study on schisandra has concentrated on liver function, especially its effect on the production of numerous liver detoxifying enzymes. Its immune-boosting abilities are far-reaching since schisandra assists increase enzyme production, improves antioxidant activity, and enhances flow, digestion and the ability to get rid of waste from the body. Since liver health is connected to stronger immunity, schisandra has been discovered to be protective versus infections, indigestion and various gastrointestinal disorders.

    Lots of studies done over the past 40 years show the performance of schisandra in cleansing the liver, recovery pneumonia, avoiding developmental issues in pregnant ladies, and decreasing allergic reactions, acute gastrointestinal diseases, gastric hyper- and hypo-secretion, persistent gastritis and stomach ulcers. Some little research studies likewise show it’s practical for treating chronic hepatitis, especially when utilized with other treatments.

    A randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study done by the Taichung Hospital Department of Health in China showed that clients experienced improvements in liver function and remedy for fatty liver illness when utilizing a mix of schisandra fruit extract and sesamin. Forty subjects were divided into a test group (taking four tablets daily) and a placebo group. Impacts of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, free radical levels, overall antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and the lag time for low-density lipoprotein oxidation were all observed.

    Compared to the control group, schisandra considerably increased the antioxidant capacity and decreased the values of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds, overall free radicals and superoxide anion radicals in the blood. A boost in glutathione peroxidase and reductase likewise happened in the group taking schisandra, while a longer time period was observed for low-density lipoprotein oxidation and inflammatory markers.

    A 2010 research study released in the International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapies found that schisandra can even benefit clients following a liver transplant, because it increases production of a compound called Tcrolimus (Tac), which prevents the body’s rejection of a new liver following liver transplantation.

    Blood concentrations of Tac considerably increased in liver transplant clients after getting schisandra sphenanthera extract (SchE). The average increase in the mean concentration of Tac in the blood was 339 percent for the group getting higher dosages of SchE and 262 percent for the group getting lower a dosage. Tac-associated negative effects, such as diarrhea and indigestion, also reduced substantially in all clients as liver function improved.

    4. Secures the Skin

    Schisandra is a natural beauty tonic that can protecting the skin from wind, sun direct exposure, allergic reactions, dermatitis, environmental stress and contaminant accumulation. Schisandra chinensis has actually been extensively utilized to deal with skin diseases due to its anti-inflammatory effects.

    While more formal research study on the results on shisadra on skin health are needed, one 2015 study utilizing rats observed that schisandra extract prevented ear swelling by reducing skin dermatitis, immune cell purification and cytokine production, which are all markers of inflammatory skin conditions in people.

    5. Improves Mental Efficiency

    One of the oldest uses for schisandra is promoting mental clarity and raising energy levels. Centuries earlier in Russia, it was utilized by the Nanai individuals to promote endurance for hunters going on long voyages without much rest or nourishment. Practitioners of TCM have actually utilized schisandra to naturally enhance mental capabilities and promote sharper concentration, increased inspiration and much better memory.

    One of the fantastic aspect of schisandra is that it does not increase energy in similar ways to caffeine, by effecting the release of various stress hormones and altering blood glucose. As you most likely understand, caffeine usage– specifically caffeine overdose– can cause side effects like anxiousness, restlessness and heart beat abnormalities, but schisandra in fact does the opposite. It essentially makes you feel calmer while also battling fatigue.

    Studies likewise reveal a link between schisandra use and security against neurological and psychiatric conditions, consisting of: neurosis, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, alcoholism and even Alzheimer’s.

    6. Helps with Healthy Sexual Function

    Research shows that schisandra is useful for fertility and hormonal health, helping promote a strong sex drive, avoiding sexual dysfunction like impotence and favorably impacting the reproductive organs, consisting of the uterus.

    Because it positively impacts hormonal agent production, consisting of estrogen, it can aiding with bone healing and forming bone mineral density. This is useful for avoiding diseases like osteoporosis, which are common among older females as they experience changes in hormone levels. [4]

    Indications You Might Require Schisandra

    Poor liver function is one of the most significant problems that may imply you need Schisandra, particularly when it’s trigger by a contaminant. Noticeable signs of aging in the skin may show that Schisandra could assist you. Slow healing and a jeopardized body immune system are likewise indications of oxidative tension that might be reduced by Schisandra. Cardiovascular indications such as an unhealthy blood sugar and high blood pressure might indicate that you need Schisandra.

    How to Utilize Schisandra Berries

    This is an extremely basic dish and an excellent method to include schisandra berry into your every day life. While making this be sure to taste the raw schisandra powder. Can you detect all 5 flavors? Frequently people taste the sour very first but, with practice, you’ll become able to identify all five tastes.

    When making this recipe I recommend using regional treatment complimentary honey– take a look around for your regional beekeepers.

    What you’ll need …

    Then:

    1. Put the schisandra powder into a little bowl.
    2. If your honey is thick, you’ll require to warm it so it has an extremely thin consistency. In a double boiler or on extremely low heat, gently heat the honey until it is a syrupy consistency. You do not wish to cook the honey, just make it thin sufficient to easily combine with the schisandra.
    3. Slowly include the liquid honey to the schisandra powder. I like to add a small amount (1 teaspoon, for instance), stir, then assess if more needs to be included.
    4. You want to mix enough honey with the schisandra so that it forms a thick paste that can be rolled into little balls. If you add excessive honey, then add a bit more powder up until you get the desired consistency.
    5. Once you have a thick paste, roll the schisandra and honey dough into little pea-sized balls. If desired, roll the balls in an organic powder such as licorice powder, orange peel powder, or increased petal powder. This will keep them from sticking together.
    6. Place these in a small container with an air-tight lid.
    7. The advised dose of schisandra is 3 to 6 grams a day, which indicates that this dish makes roughly 5 to 10 overall portions. Ideally these can be chewed so you taste the five flavors. If you make them small enough, they can also be simply swallowed.
    8. Shop these in an airtight container. These can be kept in a cool dark location or in the refrigerator, as preferred. [6]

    Do Not Take If

    You are taking drugs that are substrates of CYP1A2, 3A4, or 3A5: In vitro and animal studies recommend schisandra can affect how these drugs are metabolized. Clinical relevance has yet to be determined.

    You are taking drugs that are substrates of P-glycoprotein: Schisandra may increase the danger of side effects of these drugs. [7]

    Dose details

    Clinical trials carried out in the West are lacking or confounded, and therefore optimal dosages can not actually be theorized from these. The best estimate at this moment in time may be falling back on traditional preparation methods, which are different:

    • Dried fruit extract in a 1:6 w/v ratio versus liquid (95% ethanol) and administered at 20-30 drops daily
    • Dried fruit extract in a 1:20 w/v ratio versus water, 150mL consumed twice a day with meals
    • Eating the powdered fruit or fruit extract (this is what is typically found in tablets) at 1-3g day-to-day, with meals
    • Schisandra Chinensis fruits can be brewed into white wines or teas also. [8]

    Negative effects

    When taken by mouth: Schisandra is potentially safe when taken properly. It’s been utilized securely for approximately 12 weeks. It can trigger heartburn, indigestion, reduced hunger, and itching.

    Interactions

    Moderate Interaction

    Beware with this mix.

    Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates) interacts with SCHISANDRA

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Schisandra might change how rapidly the liver breaks down these medications. This could alter the impacts and negative effects of these medications.

    Medications altered by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) connects with SCHISANDRA

    Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Schisandra may alter how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

    Tacrolimus (Prograf) interacts with SCHISANDRA

    Schisandra may reduce how quickly the body breaks down tacrolimus. Taking schisandra with tacrolimus may increase the impacts and side effects of tacrolimus. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this mix.

    Warfarin (Coumadin) communicates with SCHISANDRA

    Warfarin is utilized to slow blood clot. Schisandra may increase the breakdown and reduce the impacts of warfarin. Decreasing the effects of warfarin may increase the risk of clotting. Make sure to have your blood inspected routinely. The dose of your warfarin might need to be altered.

    Midazolam engages with SCHISANDRA

    Schisandra might reduce how rapidly the body breaks down midazolam. Taking schisandra in addition to midazolam might increase the results and adverse effects of midazolam.

    Talinolol connects with SCHISANDRA

    Schisandra might increase the quantity of talinolol in the body. Taking schisandra while taking talinolol might increase the results and negative effects of talinolol.

    Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-Glycoprotein Substrates) engages with SCHISANDRA

    Some medications are moved in and out of cells by pumps. Schisandra may alter how these pumps work and change how much medication stays in the body. In many cases, this may alter the impacts and negative effects of a medication.

    Voriconazole (Vfend) communicates with SCHISANDRA

    Schisandra may decrease how rapidly the body breaks down voriconazole. Taking schisandra with voriconazole might increase the effects and side effects of voriconazole.

    Medications altered by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates) interacts with SCHISANDRA

    Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Schisandra might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This might change the results and side effects of these medications.

    Sirolimus (Rapamune) interacts with SCHISANDRA

    Schisandra might reduce how rapidly the body breaks down sirolimus. Taking schisandra together with sirolimus might increase the impacts and adverse effects of sirolimus. Talk with your healthcare provider if you are taking sirolimus. [9]

    What are the safety measures when taking this product?

    Always contact your physician prior to you utilize a natural item. Some products might not blend well with drugs or other natural items.

    Be sure to inform your medical professional if you are pregnant, intend on getting pregnant, or are breastfeeding. You will require to discuss the benefits and threats of using this natural item.

    This item might engage with numerous drugs that are broken down by the liver. Adverse effects of these drugs might be increased.

    Take additional care if you are taking drugs to thin your blood. These are drugs like warfarin.

    Take extra care if you are taking certain drugs. These consist of drugs like tacrolimus, midazolam, reserpine, or corticosteroids, such as prednisone.

    Take extra care if you are at a high threat for infection. This includes people who have actually had a transplant, are on chemo, or have an autoimmune illness.

    Do not use this item if you are taking the drug codeine or drugs connected to codeine. The negative effects of codeine might be increased.

    Take additional care and contact your medical professional if you have:

    Liver issues.

    An infection.

    What should I expect?

    Upset stomach.

    When do I require to call the medical professional?

    Indications of a very bad response. These include wheezing; tightness in the chest; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat. Go to the ER right away.

    Signs of overdose. These consist of restlessness, trouble sleeping, or difficulty breathing.

    • Really bad throwing up
    • Extremely bad stomach discomfort
    • Extremely bad loose stools
    • Really bad muscle weakness
    • Bruising or bleeding that is not regular
    • Blood in your stools or dark, tarry-colored stools [10]

    The bottom line

    Schisandra chinensis is described by different typical names consisting of magnolia berry and five-flavor-fruit. It is among the 50 essential herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine and is said to consist of all five fundamental flavors: salty, sweet, sour, pungent, and bitter. The fruits of a deciduous woody vine belonging to forests of northern China and eastern Russia, schisandra berries are typically manufactured in these regions as juices, white wines, extracts, and sugary foods. The berries can be macerated in fruit juice, tinctured, and infused as schisandra berry tea.

    Chinese folklore says that Schisandra can “soothe the heart and quiet the spirit”, and it has a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Schisandra, likewise called Magnolia vine due to its capability to grow upwards in a creeping fashion, is a native to Northern China, Russia, and parts of Korea. A decorative plant found in many fine gardens throughout the world, schisandra is a woody vine with oval pink leaves and bright red berries. The most popular use can be recorded in China and Russia. Some users take 1 teaspoon a day and it makes a lovely infusion in fruit juice. Pour 1/2 cup to a 1-gallon pitcher of a dark fruit juice and enable it to soak for 1 day. Strain and drink as essential. Schisandra can also be added to tea decoctions, natural brews (soft simmer), and works as a liquid herbal extract. One can also make a reliable schisandra syrup by allowing the berries to soak in Glycerin for 1 month.

    The white movie on these berries is the condensation of sucrose from the berry. Seek advice from a qualified health care specialist before taking with medications. Not for use during pregnancy or breastfeeding other than under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional. We advise that you seek advice from a certified healthcare specialist before using natural items, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, or on any medications. [11]

    References

    1. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Schisandra
    2. https://www.herbalgram.org/resources/herbalgram/issues/106/table-of-contents/hg106-herbpro-schisandra/
    3. https://www.healthline.com/health/schisandra#forms
    4. https://draxe.com/nutrition/schisandra/#How_It_Works
    5. https://www.xtend-life.com/blogs/supplement-ingredients/schisandra
    6. https://learningherbs.com/remedies-recipes/schisandra-berry-pastilles/
    7. https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/integrative-medicine/herbs/schisandra
    8. https://examine.com/supplements/schisandra/#dosage-information
    9. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-376/schisandra
    10. https://www.drugs.com/npc/schisandra.html
    11. https://mountainroseherbs.com/schisandra-berries

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