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    A fragrant plant whose greyish-green leaves are used as a cooking herb, belonging to southern europe and the mediterranean.

    Other cooking herbs, like sage, rosemary and thyme, are native to mediterranean regions where the air is rather temperate and dry. [1]


    Sage is an herb. There are numerous types of sage. The two most common are common sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia).

    Sage may aid with chemical imbalances in the brain that cause problems with memory and thinking skills. It may likewise alter how the body utilizes insulin and sugar.

    Individuals frequently use sage for memory and believing abilities, high cholesterol, and signs of menopause. It is likewise used for pain after surgery, lung cancer, sore throat, sunburn, and numerous other conditions, however there is no good clinical evidence to support these usages. [2]


    Salvia officinalis has been used given that ancient times for fending off wicked, snakebites, increasing females’s fertility, and more. The romans described sage as the “holy herb,” and used it in their religious rituals. Theophrastus wrote about 2 different sages, a wild undershrub he called sphakos, and a comparable cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Pliny the elder stated the latter plant was called salvia by the romans, and utilized as a diuretic, a local anesthetic for the skin, a styptic, and for other uses. Charlemagne advised the plant for cultivation in the early middle ages, and during the carolingian empire, it was cultivated in monastery gardens. Walafrid strabo explained it in his poem hortulus as having a sweet aroma and working for many human ailments– he went back to the greek root for the name and called it lelifagus.

    The plant had a high reputation throughout the midlifes, with many sayings referring to its recovery properties and value. It was often called s. Salvatrix (sage the savior). Dioscorides, pliny, and galen all advised sage as a diuretic, hemostatic, emmenagogue, and tonic. Le menagier de paris, in addition to advising cold sage soup and sage sauce for poultry, advises infusion of sage for washing hands at table. John gerard’s herball (1597) mentions that sage “is singularly helpful for the head and brain, it quickeneth the senses and memory, strengtheneth the sinews, restoreth health to those that have the palsy, and taketh away shakey shivering of the members.” gervase markham’s the english huswife (1615) offers a recipe for a tooth-powder of sage and salt. It appears in dishes for 4 burglars vinegar, a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. In previous centuries, it was likewise utilized for hair care, insect bites and wasp stings, nervous conditions, psychological conditions, oral preparations for swelling of the mouth, tongue and throat, and also to lower fevers. [3]


    Sage (salvia officinalis) is native to the mediterranean and naturalized throughout europe and north america. Known as garden sage, meadow sage, and real sage, this pungent herb belongs to the lamiaceae, or mint, family. The genus name is drawn from the latin salvare meaning “to conserve.” the particular name officinalis suggests that sage was consisted of on authorities lists of medicinal herbs. There are numerous types of sage, including clary sage (s. Sclarea) named because of its conventional usage as an eyewash. Native americans utilized the roots and leaves of lyre-leafed sage (s. Lyrata l.), likewise referred to as cancerweed, as a salve for sores and in a tea to treat colds and coughs. Another types, referred to as divine sage (s. Divinorum), a local of oaxaca, mexico, has been used for centuries by local shamans to achieve altered states of consciousness in recovery rituals. There are many more garden varieties, consisting of red or purple sage (s. Officinalis purpurascens), which is valued especially for its medicinal purposes.

    Sage flourishes in full sun and well-drained soils, growing wild in some locations. It is a sturdy evergreen shrub with a deep taproot and an erect root stalk that produces woody, square, slightly downy, branching stems that might reach a height of 4 ft (1.2 m). This familiar garden perennial has long, light-green leaf stalks that bear basic opposite lance- or oval-shaped leaves. The strong and flexible leaves are veined, with a velvet-like rather crinkled texture and might grow to 2 in (5.1 cm) long in some ranges. Leaf margins look like a fine embroidery finish with rounded minutely toothed edges. They are a gray-green on the leading and lighter on the underside. The entire plant is strongly fragrant, with a familiar pungency. Fresh leaves are bitter to the taste. Sage blossoms in the middle of summertime with little white, blue, or purple flowers. [4]


    Fundamental requirements sage is a grows finest in a well draining pipes, abundant, clay loams with a ph in between 6.5 and 7.0. It must be planted completely sun, although some afternoon shade is tolerated. Sage plants require warm temperatures and sufficient sunshine in order to produce a high important oil content in the leaves. Proliferation sage is typically propagated from seed, although both cuttings, departments and air layering is likewise effectively practised. The planting site ought to be warm, dry and secured from wind. Seeds must be planted after all danger of frost has actually passed leaving 23 cm (9 in) between seeds. Fertilizer may be contributed to the soil prior to planting to assist development. Plants must be thinned to a final spacing of 45 cm (18 in). General care and maintenance sage plants must be pruned in early spring to promote new growth, or after flowering in the summer. In addition to an application at planting, sage will benefit from a side dressing of fertilizer 6 to 8 weeks after planting. Sage will end up being very woody within 3-4 years of planting and need to be replaced with brand-new plants. Gathering sage is best harvested prior to flowering when the necessary oil content of the leaves is highest. Sage needs to be harvested by cutting the top 20 cm (8 in) of tender development with a sharp knife. Industrial fields might be harvested by trimming however the highest quality item is attained by gathering only the leaves. [5]

    Culinary sage types

    The two main types of sage that are grown for their cooking uses include ‘berggarten ‘, or conventional german sage, and the ever-popular ‘broadleaf ‘. While many people choose to grow garden sage for cooking and its rich taste, broadleaf sage has a milder taste, making it better for pickling or contributing to dishes and even cheese.

    Garden sage is a hardy perennial if you reside in strength zones 5-8 in the united states. It’s also resistant to pests and illness, so while you will require to get rid of small pests from the plant, it won’t require much work from you to keep it healthy.

    Common sage

    Also known as: cooking sage, garden sage.

    Taxonomic name: salvia officinalis.

    Common sage leaves

    Typical sage is a popular herb that is grown for both medicinal and cooking usages. It’s an easy-to-grow seasonal plant that can manage the majority of the harsher environments in the northern united states, along with in cooler areas.

    It grows best in raised beds with clayey soils completely sun to partial shade. Make certain it has complete drain. You ought to likewise look for great air circulation around this plant to assist avoid insects such as spider mites from ruining it or contaminating it with diseases.

    Broadleaf sage

    Also referred to as: cooking sage.

    Broadleaf sage

    Taxonomic name: salvia nemorosa ‘hot world’ a fantastic plant to contribute to your veggie garden if you like matching fresh herbs with meals. The leaves can be utilized in both mouthwatering meals or desserts. This range of sage is also a good choice if there are kids (or animals) in your home since it has a milder flavor than other kinds of sage. It also works well for marinading and seasoning oils, vinegars, butters and cheeses.

    Golden sage

    Taxonomic name: salvia officinalis ‘aurea’ and salvia officinialis ‘icterina’.

    Golden sage

    Golden sage has a less pungent flavor than typical garden sage, and often has a small citrus taste.

    Golden sage doesn’t fare effectively in chillier climates and tends to be more sensitive to modifications in light or temperature level than other kinds of sage. These garden varieties tend to be more sensitive to other bugs and illness too. But it is hardy to about 20 degrees fahrenheit however can grow back from the roots if exposed to chillier temperatures.

    Russian sage

    Taxonomic name: perovskia atriplicifolia.

    Russian sage

    Russian sage is a gorgeous and aromatic blooming plant, however it can likewise be grown for culinary purposes. Native to russia, central asia and turkey, this seasonal herb is hardy in usda zones 4 through 9 with a preference for zones 5 through 8. It has long flowering durations that run into fall or winter and often reseeds itself the following spring.

    The colors of russian sage flowers and leaves are mainly shades of purple. As a seasonal, they can grow up to 2 feet high with 2-inch long leaves growing in opposite pairs on the stem. The flowers are normally violet to pinkish or purple but may likewise be white.

    Herbalists consider this plant slightly astringent and often use it as a hair rinse for dry or breakable hair. It is likewise effective in easing swelling of your mucous membranes, such as those found in the throat or mouth and nasal passages.

    An infusion of russian sage has been utilized to treat colds, sore throats and coughs when contributed to drinks such as tea.

    Italian sage

    Also known as: italian fragrant sage.

    Scientific name: salvia officinalis ‘italian’.

    Italian sage

    Italian sage has large violet flowers with grey leaves. This variety of culinary sage isn’t commonly used for medical purposes, and it is a good option if you wish to grow it for ornamental factors. It grows up to 2 feet high with opposite, ovate leaves that have to do with 1 inch in length.

    Greek sage

    Also known as: salvia cypria.

    Scientific names: salvia fruticosa.

    Greek sage

    Typical usages: this kind of sage is native to the mediterranean area and is utilized mostly for decorative factors. It grows up to 3 feet tall with slim stems and dark green leaves. Its blue-purple flowers are often used in arrangements and dried flower arrangements.

    Greek sage is sturdy in usda zones 5 through 9 and prefers to grow completely sun. It belongs to the mint family, so it can self-sow if given enough water.

    Greek sage accounts for 50-95% ( of the dried sage offered in north america, so to state it’s popular is an understatement.

    Scarlet sage

    Also referred to as: scarlet salvia.

    Scientific name: salvia splendens.

    Scarlet sage

    A special range of sage with vibrant red or purple flowers, this plant has a really aromatic aroma that can be utilized to make a wide range of organic products. The growing suggestions are the most potent part of the plant, but you can likewise collect them for use in sachets or other aromatic items. You can even dry and squash the leaves to develop your own potpourri.

    Plants will reach around 2 feet high and spread out into a thick bush with their traditional oval green leaves. Like many perennials, you must cut down on water throughout the winter months when temperatures drop below freezing.

    Pineapple sage

    Also known as: sweet sage.

    Scientific name: salvia elegans.

    Pineapple sage

    This range gets its name from the sweet odor it has when it blooms. Pineapple sage likewise grows well as an ornamental herb with little purple flowers and green leaves. You can utilize this range to make both a tea and tincture or harvest the leaves for later usage.

    Common usages for this plant consist of assisting indigestion, reducing pain related to menstrual cramps, calming symptoms of anxiety and helping you get a peaceful night’s sleep.

    Pineapple sage is sturdy in usda zones 5 through 9 with a preference for zones 7 through 8. It is an annual blooming plant that can mature to 4 feet high and 2 feet wide. It has soft green leaves that are a little serrated, offering it a special look when compared to other plants in the salvia genus.

    Pineapple sage is popular for its aromatic purple flowers with yellow centers but likewise makes an attractive decorative plant due to its dark green foliage and low-growing stature. The blossoms will appear from late summer season into fall or early winter on this durable yearly. They have a pineapple scent that brings in bees and butterflies while including color to your garden beds during those months when many other flowering herbs fail to do so.

    The small flowers are largely compacted with their purplish-red petals radiating from a yellow center. The plant itself will grow up to 4 feet tall, but it can also spread out into a wider bush with some pruning and proper care.

    White sage

    Taxonomic name: salvia apiana.

    White sage

    White sage has silvery gray leaves and is frequently used as the normal “sage burning” sage. Belonging to the southwestern areas of the united states and mexico. It is usually dried for ritualistic use, burning as a spot stick. White sage has a strong, pine-like aroma with a smokey finish. It is highly valued for ritualistic usage by numerous native people.

    Most varieties of white sage are not suggested for culinary use because they tend to have more of a scorched flavor than other varieties. White sage is also very sturdy, and can be grown in zones 5 to 9.

    Mealycup sage

    Taxonomic name: salvia farinacea.

    Mealycup sage

    Mealycup sage is belonging to texas and the desert locations of brand-new mexico. The leaves are blue-green or grey, with downy hairs underneath, and grow close together along the stems that can grow in between 12 and 24 inches tall. Mealycup sage is likewise referred to as texas tarragon since it tastes like its french cousin when used in cooking. Herbalists use this plant to assist soothe upset stomachs, minimize tension and deal with diarrhea.

    The flowers on the mealycup sage are lilac-blue, white or pink relying on the variety you pick. This hardy perennial grows best in usda zones 8 through 11 however will grow in zone 6 if offered the right amount of water. You can cut back on the amount you provide it throughout the winter season when temperatures drop below freezing. Simply don’t permit the plant to wilt completely.

    Mealycup sage must be planted in a warm area in either full or partial sun and watered frequently. Nevertheless, this particular variety does not succeed with overwatering– keep the soil slightly dry in between watering sessions. This is specifically true if utilizing a drip irrigation system– excessive water will kill your plant off rather rapidly. If you use sprinklers, wait up until after sunset so the leaves have time to fully dry before early morning dew appears.

    The seeds for mealycup sage are white and grow within pods that are normally around 1 inch.

    Mexican bush sage

    Scientific name: salvia leucantha.

    Mexican bush sage

    This variety of sage is native to mexico and central america. It grows in between 2 and 3 feet high and has actually deeply colored, dark green foliage. Mexican bush sage is typically utilized as a border plant in the landscape due to its capability to grow on steep slopes and endure hot weather conditions with routine watering.

    The little purple flowers bloom from july through september on this sturdy perennial plant however you can likewise collect leaves for tea or drying when it blooms so the plant stays healthy.

    You may find that pinch back your mexican bush sage every couple of years throughout early spring at around 10 inches tall if you prefer it as simply an ornamental flower due to the fact that they are exceptionally large bushes once they get to a particular size.

    Berggarten sage

    Scientific name: artemisia berggardiana.

    Berggarten sage

    This range of sage is often used for ornamental functions because of its appealing gray-green leaves. It grows between 1 and 2 ′ tall with a spread of as much as 3 ′. As the name suggests, berggarten sage grows finest in a climate zone 7 or greater but will do alright in zones 5 through 9 if given the right amount of water– it does not like to dry completely!

    The flowers bloom blue from mid-july into august on this long lasting seasonal plant, however you can likewise harvest fresh leaves throughout summer for usage in your cooking creations so the plant stays healthy. If you pinch the tips off of your berggarten sage every few years in early spring at about 8 inches tall, you can encourage it to grow bushier and thicker.

    Woodland sage

    Also called: wood sage.

    Taxonomic name: salvia nemorosa.

    Forest sage

    Woodland sage is a seasonal plant that grows to about 3 feet in height and has green leaves with purple markings. The plant can be used as a border for open woods or planted near taller plants. The scent of the blooms is stated to draw in bees, butterflies, and birds.

    Forest sage spreads by rhizomes, and while they do not cause any damage, they do grow on top of the ground. For this reason, forests sage is often grown in containers or raised beds. These plants can be grown in usda zones 4 through 8 and are relatively dry spell tolerant during the summertime.

    Forest sage is typically used for medical purposes. It has actually been understood to deal with uneasiness, throwing up, and diarrhea. The leaves are likewise used for teas in some cultures as a remedy for colds, coughs, and fevers.

    It can be grown outdoors or as part of an indoor garden but is more frequently found growing outside near the woods or other gardens where it tends to prosper best. This plant is finest grown from seed and it is very important not to overwater or fertilize forest sage plants. [6]

    Advantages of sage

    Sage is a staple herb in numerous foods all over the world.

    Its other names include typical sage, garden sage and salvia officinalis. It belongs to the mint family, along with other herbs like oregano, rosemary, basil and thyme.

    Sage has a strong fragrance and earthy taste, which is why it’s generally used in percentages. However, it’s loaded with a range of important nutrients and compounds.

    Sage is also used as a natural cleaning agent, pesticide and routine object in spiritual sage burning or smudging.

    This green herb is readily available fresh, dried or in oil type– and has many health advantages.

    Here are 12 unexpected health advantages of sage.

    High in numerous nutrients

    Sage packs a healthy dose of vitamins and minerals.

    One teaspoon (0.7 grams) of ground sage includes:.

    • Calories: 2
    • Protein: 0.1 grams
    • Carbohydrates: 0.4 grams
    • Fat: 0.1 grams
    • Vitamin k: 10% of the
    • Recommendation daily intake (rdi)
    • Iron: 1.1% of the rdi
    • Vitamin b6: 1.1% of the rdi
    • Calcium: 1% of the rdi
    • Manganese: 1% of the rdi

    As you can see, a percentage of sage loads 10% of your everyday Vitamin k needs (2trusted source).

    Sage likewise consists of small amounts of magnesium, zinc, copper and vitamins a, c and e.

    What’s more, this aromatic spice homes caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin– all of which play a role in its helpful health effects.

    Because it’s consumed in small amounts, sage supplies just minuscule amounts of carbohydrates, calories, protein and fiber.

    Summary sage is

    Rich in nutrients– specifically vitamin k– in spite of being low in calories. One.

    Teaspoon (0.7 grams) boasts 10% of your day-to-day Vitamin k needs.

    Loaded with anti-oxidants

    Antioxidants are particles that help fortify your body’s defenses, reducing the effects of possibly hazardous free radicals that are linked to chronic diseases.

    Sage consists of over 160 unique polyphenols, which are plant-based chemical compounds that serve as antioxidants in your body.

    Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin– all found in sage– are linked to outstanding health benefits, such as a lower danger of cancer and enhanced brain function and memory.

    One study discovered that drinking 1 cup (240 ml) of sage tea twice everyday significantly increased antioxidant defenses. It likewise decreased both total cholesterol and “bad” ldl cholesterol, along with raised “good” hdl cholesterol.

    Summary sage is

    Loaded with anti-oxidants that are connected to a number of health benefits, including.

    Enhanced brain function and lower cancer threat.

    May support oral health

    Sage has antimicrobial results, which can reduce the effects of microorganisms that promote oral plaque.

    In one research study, a sage-based mouthwash was revealed to effectively kill the streptococcus mutans germs, which is well-known for triggering dental cavities.

    In a test-tube research study, a sage-based essential oil was revealed to eliminate and stop the spread of candida albicans, a fungi that might likewise trigger cavities.

    One review noted that sage might deal with throat infections, dental abscesses, contaminated gums and mouth ulcers. However, more human research is required to make thorough suggestions.

    Summary sage

    Has antimicrobial properties that may kill microorganisms that motivate the growth.

    Of oral plaque.

    May ease menopause symptoms

    During menopause, your body experiences a natural decline in the hormonal agent estrogen. This can cause a vast array of unpleasant signs.

    Symptoms consist of hot flashes, excessive sweating, vaginal dryness and irritability.

    Common sage was typically utilized to minimize menopause signs.

    It’s believed that substances in sage have estrogen-like properties, enabling them to bind to particular receptors in your brain to assist enhance memory and treat hot flashes and excessive sweating.

    In one research study, everyday use of a sage supplement significantly minimized the number and intensity of hot flashes over eight weeks.

    Summary sage

    May help reduce the intensity and frequency of menopause symptoms, such as hot

    Flashes and irritability.

    May lower blood glucose levels

    The leaves of typical sage have been used generally as a treatment versus diabetes.

    Human and animal research study shows that it might assist lower blood sugar level levels.

    In one research study, sage extract lowered blood sugar levels in rats with type 1 diabetes by activating a particular receptor. When this receptor is triggered, it can assist clear excess complimentary fats in the blood, which in turn improves insulin level of sensitivity.

    Another study in mice with type 2 diabetes found that sage tea acts like metformin– a drug recommended to handle blood glucose in individuals with the exact same disease.

    In human beings, sage leaf extract has actually been revealed to lower blood sugar and enhance insulin level of sensitivity with a similar effect as rosiglitazone, another anti-diabetes drugs.

    However, there is still inadequate evidence to advise sage as a diabetes treatment. More human research study is needed.

    Summary while

    Sage might reduce blood glucose levels by increasing insulin sensitivity, more human research study is needed.

    May support memory and brain health

    Sage can help support your brain and memory in numerous methods

    For one, it’s packed with compounds that can serve as anti-oxidants, which have been revealed to buffer your brain’s defense system.

    It likewise appears to halt the breakdown of the chemical messenger acetylcholine (ach), which has a role in memory. Ach levels appear to fall in alzheimer’s illness.

    In one study, 39 participants with mild to moderate alzheimer’s illness taken in either 60 drops (2 ml) of a sage extract supplement or a placebo daily for four months.

    Those taking the sage extract performed much better on tests that measured memory, analytical, thinking and other cognitive abilities.

    In healthy adults, sage was shown to enhance memory in low dosages. Higher dosages likewise elevated mood and increased alertness, calmness and contentedness.

    In both more youthful and older adults, sage appears to enhance memory and brain function.

    Summary research studies

    Show that sage may improve memory, brain function and signs of alzheimer’s.


    May lower ‘bad’ ldl cholesterol

    Every minute, more than one person in the us dies from heart disease.

    High “bad” ldl cholesterol is an essential cardiovascular disease risk factor, affecting one in three americans.

    Sage might help lower “bad” ldl cholesterol, which can build up in your arteries and potentially trigger damage.

    In one research study, consuming sage tea twice everyday reduced “bad” ldl cholesterol and overall blood cholesterol while raising “good” hdl cholesterol after simply 2 weeks.

    Numerous other human studies show a similar impact with sage extract.

    Summary consumption

    Of sage and sage items have been revealed to reduce “bad” ldl cholesterol levels.

    And raise “good” hdl cholesterol levels.

    May protect against particular cancers

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in which cells grow abnormally.

    Interestingly, animal and test-tube research studies demonstrate that sage might fight certain kinds of cancer, consisting of those of the mouth, colon, liver, cervix, breast, skin and kidney.

    In these studies, sage extracts not only suppress the growth of cancer cells but also promote cell death.

    While this research study is motivating, human research studies are needed to determine whether sage works at fighting cancer in human beings.

    Summary test-tube

    And animal research recommend that sage may battle specific cancer cells, though.

    Human research study is required.

    Other potential health benefits

    Sage and its compounds are linked to several other health advantages.

    Nevertheless, these advantages have not been thoroughly looked into.

    Might minimize diarrhea: fresh sage is a.

    Traditional treatment for diarrhea. Test-tube and animal studies found that.

    It consists of compounds that might relieve diarrhea by unwinding your diet.

    May assistance bone health: vitamin k,

    Which sage provides in big quantities, contributes in bone health. A deficiency in this vitamin.

    Is linked to bone thinning and fractures.

    May fight skin aging: a number of test-tube

    Studies suggest that sage compounds may assist battle indications of aging, such as wrinkles.

    Summary sage

    Has actually been connected to other possible health benefits, such as easing diarrhea,.

    Supporting bone health and combatting skin aging.

    Easy to contribute to your diet plan

    Sage is available in numerous forms and can be utilized in a variety of methods.

    Fresh sage leaves have a strong aromatic taste and are best used sparingly in meals.

    Here are some ways you can add fresh sage to your diet plan:.

    • Sprinkle as a garnish on soups.
    • Mix into a stuffing in roast meals.
    • Integrate chopped entrusts butter to make sage butter.
    • Include sliced leaves to tomato sauce.
    • Serve it with eggs in an omelet.

    Dried sage is often preferred by cooks and comes ground, rubbed or in whole leaves.

    Here are some ways you can use dried sage:.

    • As a rub for meats.
    • As a flavoring for roasted vegetables.
    • Combined with mashed potatoes or squash for earthy flavor.

    You can also acquire sage products, such as sage tea and sage extract supplements.

    Summary sage is

    Exceptionally versatile and simple to contribute to soups, stews and baked meals. It’s.

    Offered fresh, dried or ground. [7]

    Possible adverse effects

    When consumed as a spice in food, sage is considered safe for grownups and children.

    Healthcare specialists typically concur that:.

    Sage should be safe when taken in medicinal quantities for no more than two months.

    Sage might be unsafe when it’s taken in high doses or for a very long time. Some species of sage, consisting of common sage (salvia officinalis), contain a chemical called thujone. Excessive thujone can cause seizures and damage the liver and nerve system.

    Sage applied to the skin is perhaps safe when used for approximately one week.

    Sage necessary oil, inhaled as aromatherapy, ought to be safe. Like some other essential oils, sage oil can be toxic and must never be taken orally. Even when applied topically, the oil needs to be diluted or it might cause rash or irritation.

    Sage can also make anticonvulsant drugs less effective if used in excess, including phenobarbital, mysoline (primidone), depakote (valproic acid), neurontin (gabapentin), tegretol (carbamazepine), and dilantin (phenytoin).

    The excessive use of sage if you’re taking diabetes medications can set off a possibly severe drop in blood glucose, causing hypoglycemia. If you utilize sage capsules or extracts, never ever take in more than the recommended dose on the item label. Sage medications ought to be utilized with caution in people with impaired kidney function.

    Inform your healthcare provider about any medications you’re taking, consisting of natural remedies like sage, so that you’re totally familiar with the possible interactions and threats. [8]


    Doses of 300 and 600 mg of dried sage leaf have been investigated in state of mind and cognitive performance studies. A standardized s. Officinalis ethanolic extract at a dose of 333 mg was utilized in a study assessing its effects on memory and attention in healthy older volunteers. A common dose has actually been referred to as 4 to 6 g/day of the sage leaf. [9]


    Drying medications (anticholinergic drugs) interaction score: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health company.

    Typical sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase levels of particular chemicals in the body that work in the brain, heart, and elsewhere. Some drying medications called “anticholinergic drugs” can likewise these exact same chemicals, however in a different way. These drying medications may decrease the results of these sage species, and these sage types may reduce the impacts of drying medications.

    Some of these drying medications include atropine, scopolamine, some medications utilized for allergic reactions (antihistamines), and some medications used for depression (antidepressants).

    Estrogens interaction rating: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

    Geraniol, a chemical in spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia), may have a few of the exact same results as estrogen. Nevertheless, geraniol discovered in spanish sage isn’t as strong as estrogen pills. Taking spanish sage along with estrogen tablets may reduce the results of estrogen tablets.

    Some estrogen pills consist of conjugated equine estrogens (premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

    Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2c19 (cyp2c19) substrates) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might reduce how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage along with some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the results and adverse effects of some medications. Before taking sage as a medicine, talk with your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

    Some medications that are altered by the liver include omeprazole (prilosec), lansoprazole (prevacid), and pantoprazole (protonix); diazepam (valium); carisoprodol (soma); nelfinavir (viracept); and others.

    Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2c9 (cyp2c9) substrates) interaction ranking: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health company.

    Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage in addition to some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking sage as a medicine, speak to your doctor if you take any medications that are altered by the liver.

    Some medications that are altered by the liver consist of diclofenac (cataflam, voltaren), ibuprofen (motrin), meloxicam (mobic), and piroxicam (feldene); celecoxib (celebrex); amitriptyline (elavil); warfarin (coumadin); glipizide (glucotrol); losartan (cozaar); and others.

    Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2d6 (cyp2d6) substrates) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how rapidly the body breaks down some medications. Taking sage together with some medications that are changed by the liver can increase the impacts and adverse effects of your medication. Before taking sage as a medicine, speak to your doctor if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

    Some medications that are changed by the body consist of amitriptyline (elavil), codeine, desipramine (norpramin), flecainide (tambocor), fluoxetine (prozac), ondansetron (zofran), tramadol (ultram), and others.

    Medications altered by the liver (cytochrome p450 2e1 (cyp2e1) substrates) interaction score: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Typical sage may increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking common sage together with some medications that are altered by the liver might decrease the impacts and negative effects of your medication. Prior to taking typical sage as a medicine, speak with your doctor if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

    Some medications that are altered by the liver include acetaminophen, chlorzoxazone (parafon strength), ethanol, theophylline, and drugs used for anesthesia throughout surgery such as enflurane (ethrane), halothane (fluothane), isoflurane (forane), and methoxyflurane (penthrane).

    Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 3a4 (cyp3a4) substrates) interaction score: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health company.

    Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Sage may decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage in addition to some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking sage as a medicine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are altered by the liver.

    Medications that might be affected consist of specific heart medications called Calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), cancer drugs (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), fungus-fighting drugs (ketoconazole, itraconazole), glucocorticoids, alfentanil (alfenta), cisapride (propulsid), fentanyl (sublimaze), lidocaine (xylocaine), losartan (cozaar), midazolam (versed), and others.

    Medications for alzheimer’s illness (acetylcholinesterase (pains) inhibitors) interaction ranking: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

    Typical sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase certain chemicals in the brain, heart, and somewhere else in the body. Some medications utilized for alzheimer’s disease also impact these chemicals. Taking these types of sage in addition to medications for alzheimer’s illness may increase results and side effects of medications used for alzheimer’s disease.

    Medications for diabetes (antidiabetes drugs) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

    Sage might decrease blood glucose. Diabetes medications are likewise utilized to lower blood sugar level. Taking sage in addition to diabetes medications may trigger your blood sugar level to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

    Some medications used for diabetes consist of glimepiride (amaryl), glyburide (diabeta, glynase prestab, micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (actos), rosiglitazone (avandia), chlorpropamide (diabinese), glipizide (glucotrol), tolbutamide (orinase), and others.

    Medications for high blood pressure (antihypertensive drugs) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

    Common sage (salvia officinalis) appears to lower high blood pressure. Taking common sage along with medications for hypertension may trigger your blood pressure to go too low. On the other hand, spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase high blood pressure. Taking spanish sage in addition to medications for high blood pressure may lower the effects of these medications.

    Some medications for hypertension consist of captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), losartan (cozaar), valsartan (diovan), diltiazem (cardizem), amlodipine (norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (hydrodiuril), furosemide (lasix), and lots of others.

    Medications moved by pumps in cells (p-glycoprotein substrates) interaction ranking: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

    Some medications are moved by pumps into cells. Common sage (salvia officinalis) might make these pumps less active and increase how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This might increase the negative effects of some medications.

    Some medications that are moved by these pumps consist of etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (propulsid), fexofenadine (allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (imodium), quinidine, and others.

    Medications used to prevent seizures (anticonvulsants) interaction score: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

    Medications used to prevent seizures affect chemicals in the brain. Sage may also impact chemicals in the brain. By impacting chemicals in the brain, sage may reduce the efficiency of medications used to prevent seizures.

    Some medications utilized to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (mysoline), valproic acid (depakene), gabapentin (neurontin), carbamazepine (tegretol), phenytoin (dilantin), and others.

    Sedative medications (benzodiazepines) interaction score: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health company.

    Common sage (salvia officinalis) might trigger drowsiness and drowsiness. Medications that trigger sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking typical sage in addition to sedative medications might trigger too much sleepiness.

    A few of these sedative medications include clonazepam (klonopin), diazepam (valium), lorazepam (ativan), and others.

    Sedative medications (cns depressants) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health company.

    Sage may cause drowsiness and sleepiness. Medications that triggers sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking sage along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

    Some sedative medications consist of clonazepam (klonopin), lorazepam (ativan), phenobarbital (donnatal), zolpidem (ambien), and others.

    Numerous medications utilized for glaucoma, alzheimer’s illness, and other conditions (cholinergic drugs) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

    Typical sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase particular chemicals in the brain, heart, and in other places in the body. Some medications utilized for glaucoma, alzheimer’s illness, and other conditions likewise affect these chemicals. Taking these types of sage with these medications might increase the possibility of negative effects.

    A few of these medications used for glaucoma, alzheimer’s disease, and other conditions consist of pilocarpine (pilocar and others), donepezil (aricept), tacrine (cognex), and others. [10]


    Contraindicated in:.

    • Hypersensitivity;
    • Pregnancy and lactation.

    Usage carefully in:.

    • Seizure conditions;
    • High blood pressure;
    • Diabetes [11]


    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the recent developments in the expedition of sage (salvia species) as phytotherapy and to show its potential as a restorative representative. Salvia types may represent a natural, safe, and effective treatment for numerous illness and their symptoms. In current decades, with the increase in medicinal knowledge about the useful results of sage, especially s. Officinalis, these herbal medications with anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, and antitumor activities have been found to be really effective in the development of unique natural drugs to prevent, control, and treat lots of minor illness as well as more severe and complicated diseases such as diabetes, alzheimer’s, and cancer. It should be born in mind that clinicians must stay cautious till more definite research studies demonstrate the safety, quality, and effectiveness of s. Officinalis. For these reasons, comprehensive pharmacological and chemical experiments, together with human metabolic studies must be the focus of our future studies, and further capacity of s. Officinalis needs to be used in brand-new healing drugs and provide a basis for future research study on the application of medicinal plants. [12]


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