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    Propolis is a resin-like material from the buds of poplar and cone-bearing trees. Propolis is rarely offered in its pure form. It is normally gotten from beehives and includes bee items.

    Propolis has a long history of medicinal usage, dating back to 350 b.c., the time of aristotle. Greeks have actually utilized propolis for abscesses; assyrians have used it for recovery wounds and growths; and egyptians have used it for mummification. It still has many medicinal usages today, although its effectiveness has actually just been shown for a number of them.

    Propolis is utilized for canker sores and infections triggered by germs (including tuberculosis), by viruses (including flu, h1n1 “swine” influenza, and the common cold), by fungus, and by single-celled organisms called protozoans. Propolis is also used for cancer of the nose and throat; for boosting the immune system; and for treating gastrointestinal (gi) problems consisting of helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer illness. Propolis is also used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory representative.

    People sometimes apply propolis straight to the skin for wound cleansing, genital herpes and cold sores; as a mouth rinse for speeding recovery following dental surgery; and for the treatment of small burns.

    In production, propolis is used as an ingredient in cosmetics.

    How does it work?

    Propolis appears to have activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungis. It may likewise have anti-inflammatory impacts and help skin heal. (1 ).

    Propolis qualities, source, and bioactive composition


    Propolis is a lipophilic in nature, hard and fragile material and it becomes soft, pliable, gummy, and extremely sticky when heated up. It has a particular and pleasant aromatic smell and varies in color from yellow green to red and to dark brown depending on its source and age. Depending upon the origin of the resins, it also varies from yellow to dark brown. But even transparent propolis has actually been reported.


    Propolis is a complicated mixture made by bee-released and plant-derived substances. In general, raw propolis is made up of around 50% resins, 30% waxes, 10% necessary oils, 5% pollen, and 5% of numerous organic compounds. More than 300 constituents were recognized in different samples and new ones are still being recognized during chemical characterization of new kinds of propolis. The proportions of the numerous substances present in the propolis depend upon its place and time of collection.

    Numerous analytical approaches have been utilized for separation and recognition of propolis constituents and the compounds recognized belong to the following groups of chemically similar substances: polyphenols; benzoic acids and derivatives; cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic acid and its derivatives; sesquiterpene and triterpene hydrocarbons; benzaldehyde derivatives; other acids and respective derivatives; alcohols, ketones, and heteroaromatic substances; terpene and sesquiterpene alcohols and their derivatives; aliphatic hydrocarbons; minerals; sterols and steroid hydrocarbons; sugars and amino acids. As it may be expected, volatile compounds (produced by the source plants) are present in low quantities. Sugars are thought to be presented unintentionally during the elaboration of propolis and/or passage of bees over the resin. Some substances prevail in all propolis samples and identify its qualities residential or commercial properties.

    Propolis of different origin contains different constituents. Some constituents are present in numerous samples from different places. Some constituents exist in sample from particular plant origin.

    Different geographical origin of propolis sample varies with its biological activity due to different weather conditions. The important primary compounds responsible for biological activities are polyphenols, fragrant acids, and diterpenic acids, however very couple of different propolis types have been different in their primary bioactive compounds. Different composition is also connected to specific plants of the area and treatments of basic material. (2 ).


    Propolis is a natural resinous product gathered from the buds of conifers and other trees by honeybees. It is used by bees to seal walls and strengthen combs of hives, in addition to embalm dead invaders. It is a sticky, greenish-brown mass with a minor aromatic smell.


    Propolis has actually been utilized as a medical representative since ancient times. It was used in folk medicine as early as 300 bc for cosmetic purposes, for its anti-inflammatory properties, and for injury healing. It has actually been used internally and externally and is thought to have anti-bacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, local anesthetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, hypotensive, and cytostatic residential or commercial properties.


    The composition of propolis varies with its geographic and plant source, in addition to with the collection season. The alcohol extract of propolis is called propolis wax or cast, with the insoluble residue referred to as propolis resin. Propolis includes 50% resin and vegetable balsam, 30% wax, 10% necessary and aromatic oils, 5% pollen, and 5% other compounds, consisting of minerals such as magnesium, nickel, iron, calcium, and zinc.

    Propolis consists of flavonoids, consisting of quercetin, pinocembrin, galangin, and pinobanksin, along with hydroquinone, caffeic acid, and caffeic acid esters. A variety of other compounds have been recognized in propolis from particular geographical sources. (3 ).

    Propolis bioactive compounds

    The chemical makeup of propolis is closely connected to its geographical origin, flora, and the bee species. It can differ widely, even from hive to hive.

    Organic propolis is generally dark brown or green in color, has a sweet odor, and is made up of:.

    • Resins (50-70%)
    • Beeswax (30-50%)
    • Pollen (5-10%)
    • Essential oils (depends upon the area, generally basil, thyme, and geranium) (5-10%)
    • Other substances such as acids, sugars, and vitamins (b, c, and e) (5% -7%)

    The main active ingredients in propolis are flavonoids such as chrysin, which are strong antioxidants that bees get from plant and flower parts. Bees make propolis by blending their saliva with plant product, pollen, and beeswax.

    Over 300 biologically active ingredients have actually been recognized in propolis thus far, including aromatic chemicals, acids, carbs, plant oils, and vitamins (b1, b2, c, and e). Brand-new types of propolis are being discovered as interest grows around the globe.

    Mechanism of action

    • A a great deal of bioactive and antioxidant compounds in propolis discuss its wide-ranging potential benefits. Propolis may act in the body to:
    • Kill bacteria and infections by stopping their growth and spread.
    • Battle yeast infections by obstructing the development of yeast and fungi.
    • Assist with allergic reactions by blocking the release of histamines.
    • Lower high blood pressure by lowering the activity of an enzyme (tyrosine hydroxylase) that may cause high blood pressure.
    • Boost bone health and help recover fractures by enhancing bone density.
    • Fight cancer by obstructing the development of cancer cells and triggering cell death (apoptosis).
    • Enhance tooth and oral health and reduce the effects of cavities by eliminating germs and lowering swelling around the gums.
    • Speed up injury healing by promoting skin cell rejuvenation.
    • Secure the liver from toxic substances, injury, and illness.
    • Help with diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels. (4 )

    Health advantages

    Although couple of clinical trials have actually checked the health results of propolis, there’s some evidence that propolis might provide specific advantages. Here’s a look at numerous key findings from the offered studies:.

    Cold sore treatment

    Preliminary research recommends that topically using propolis might help heal cold sores. In a study published in phytotherapy research in 2010, for instance, researchers found that extracts of propolis possess virus-fighting effects that may assist knock out against herpes simplex infection type 1, the virus that causes cold sores.

    Genital herpes treatment

    Applying a propolis-based lotion might help deal with sores connected to genital herpes, according to a study published in phytomedicine. For the 10-day research study, 90 men and women with genital herpes used a lotion including flavonoids sourced from propolis, an ointment containing acyclovir (a drug used to decrease discomfort and speed recovery of herpes-related sores), or a placebo ointment.

    By the research study’s end, 24 out of the 30 individuals in the propolis group had recovered (compared to 14 out of 30 in the acyclovir group and 12 out of 30 in the placebo group). Given this finding, the study’s authors concluded that a lotion containing flavonoids sourced from propolis might be more effective than both acyclovir and placebo ointments in healing sores associated with genital herpes.

    Burn treatment

    Propolis may promote the healing of minor burns, according to a study from the journal of alternative and complementary medication. For the study, researchers compared the effects of a propolis-based skin cream with those of silver sulfadiazine, a drug frequently used in the treatment of 2nd- and third-degree burns, in patients with second-degree burns.

    Research study results showed that propolis and silver sulfadiazine were likewise effective in the treatment of burns. What’s more, propolis appeared to use greater anti-inflammatory advantages than silver sulfadiazine did.

    Food poisonings

    Research suggests propolis can help treat food poisonings, consisting of ulcerative colitis, gastrointestinal cancers, and ulcers. Components in propolis, consisting of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (cape), artepillin c, kaempferol, and galangin, have actually been revealed to successfully eliminate pathogens, including h. Pylori. The research study, however, is limited to animal studies and cell cultures.

    Cavity control

    Propolis may help combat cavities, a study from biological & & pharmaceutical publication programs. In lab research, scientists discovered that compounds found in propolis helped prevent the growth of streptococcus mutans, an oral germs understood to add to the development of cavities.

    The research study recommends that propolis may likewise assist stop streptococcus mutans from sticking to the teeth.

    Diabetes management

    Findings from animal-based research show that propolis may assist in the treatment of diabetes. In a 2005 study published in pharmacological research study, for instance, tests on diabetic rats exposed that treatment with propolis helped lower blood sugar levels and minimize cholesterol. These results have actually not be replicated in human studies, however. (5 ).


    The antioxidants in propolis may work to lower swelling, such as the inflammation that arthritis causes.

    Animal research studies have actually checked propolis as an anti-inflammatory agent in rats and mice with arthritis. In both studies, the propolis hindered swelling and appeared to have an impact on how the inflammation developed.

    Researchers believe that propolis might manage inflammatory compounds in the body, such as prostaglandins.


    One 2020 study in the journal phytotherapy research argues that propolis’s antiviral homes may imply that it works against sars-cov-2. This is the coronavirus that triggers covid-19.

    Previous laboratory studies have actually shown that propolis exhibits antiviral activity versus other kinds of infection, including:.

    • Rhinoviruses
    • Influenza (flu)
    • Respiratory syncytial infection

    Propolis likewise appears to help promote the immune system. For these reasons, the researchers suggest that propolis may help with avoiding sars-cov-2 infection.

    However, while scientific trials on propolis’s capability to prevent covid-19 are underway, there is currently no proof to suggest that it is effective for this function.


    One research study in the journal oxidative medication and cellular durability notes that propolis includes substances that might have an anti-allergy impact in the body.

    Some people might feel a take advantage of utilizing propolis for this purpose. However, there is not much scientific proof to prove that propolis can help in reducing allergy signs. (6 ).


    Propolis does have actually shown antibiotic and antiseptic residential or commercial properties and may also have antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. I consider it safe and beneficial as a home remedy. You can find it in different kinds in health food stores or get the raw stuff from beekeepers. I advise it as a good topical treatment for straightforward wounds and, when used as a gargle or in spray kind, as a solution for sores and inflammations in the mouth. I utilize propolis in cast form to treat canker sores and sore throats.

    If you have had an allergic or hypersensitivity response to bee stings or bee items (including honey), you could respond to propolis in the same way. A history of reactions to black popular, poplar bud, or balsam of peru might likewise show risk of responses to propolis. In some individuals, regular use of propolis can likewise cause reactions, such as swelling, fluid collection, inflammation, burning, eczema and fever. (7 ).

    Does propolis have negative effects?

    Propolis usually has couple of side effects. The negative effects that occur can be seen in a restricted number of individuals and are also frequently mild in nature. For example, roughly one in 2,000 people is stated to experience adverse effects. These people are hypersensitive to propolis itself and to the items that contain propolis. Research study shows that queasiness was the most often mentioned negative effects. It likewise appears that grievances can increase at the beginning of use which is not always a bad indication. This may be due to the fact that your body is not used to the compound. If the response has subsided, you can pick to take the compound once again and you might see that your body responds well to the propolis.

    There are a variety of adverse effects of propolis that can occur in the restricted number of people:.

    • Worsening pre-existing symptoms
    • Headache or dizziness
    • An unusual sensation and or rough feeling in the mouth
    • A burning sensation in the esophagus
    • Have to go to the toilet regularly to pee
    • The people who report having negative effects from propolis are not simply discussing negative side effects. There are also useful side effects that can take place. It is stated that you have a higher energy level, extended fatigue can vanish and pimples can vanish.

    Can you have a propolis allergy?

    There are people who can be allergic to propolis and the products which contain propolis. The allergy to propolis is uncommon. It ends up that about 1.3% of the population has a propolis allergy. Fortunately, the allergy signs are usually not that bad. Regrettably, you will not learn up until you have used the item. If you are allergic, there may be bumps, red spots and itchy areas on the skin (external usage). The substance can also trigger an unpleasant sensation in the throat (internal usage). Are you adverse other compounds, such as balsam of peru? Then there is a greater possibility that you dislike propolis.

    There are numerous propolis items offered. To examine whether you dislike propolis, it is best to choose propolis lotion orpropolis drops to use. You can put a few drops or a little ointment on your forearm or wrist prior to going to sleep. If you have done this, during the night or nothing at all or red spots appear that can itch. The next day you will know if you dislike propolis. If it turns out that you are allergic, it is not suggested to utilize propolis. If in doubt or if you have illness, it is recommended to consult your doctor.

    Is propolis dangerous?

    Propolis can be harmful for people who have asthma and dislike propolis. If you have asthma and are not sure if you are allergic to propolis, it is advised that you take the compound under the supervision of a doctor. It is likewise advised not to take propolis prior to or after surgery. Physicians indicate not to take propolis 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after. Propolis can affect blood clotting. Additionally, propolis is also not recommended for people with serious heart issues and kidney failure. Even if you have an allergy to bee items and honey, it is naturally not suggested to use propolis. If this does not apply to you, then propolis can do little damage. The negative effects are not serious and the allergies are frustrating however not hazardous either. If you are not exactly sure whether propolis is dangerous for you, it is smart to contact your medical professional.

    Propolis suitable for children?

    It is also important for kids to do an allergy test. It is best to do this with the ointment or the drops and position it on the skin in a percentage. It is likewise smart to acquire drops in basic, since tablets and pills are typically too large for kids. It is stated that kids from the age of 3 are enabled to take propolis internally.

    Can propolis be utilized with other medicines?

    Formally, propolis is not a drug, due to the fact that it does not meet the requirements of a pharmaceutical drug. It needs to have a fixed structure. Propolis is a natural item, so it has no set composition. Propolis can be utilized concurrently with antibiotic. It even ends up that these two substances enhance each other. If you are not exactly sure whether you can use propolis with other medicines, please talk to your physician initially. (8 ).

    Finest ways to utilize propolis

    The suggested daily consumption amount of propolis is 400 to 500 mg. You may take propolis by mouth after diluting it with water or as an oral supplement. Also, propolis is in numerous creams, ointments, mouthwashes, and cosmetics. (9 ).

    Is it safe?

    When taken by mouth: propolis is possibly safe when used appropriately. It can trigger allergies, specifically in individuals who are allergic to other bee items. Lozenges including propolis can cause irritation and mouth ulcers.

    When applied to the skin: propolis is possibly safe when utilized appropriately. It can trigger allergies, especially in individuals who are allergic to other bee products.

    Special preventative measures & cautions

    • Pregnancy: there isn’t adequate trustworthy information to understand if propolis is safe to use when pregnant. Remain on the safe side and prevent use.
    • Breast-feeding: propolis is potentially safe when taken by mouth while breastfeeding. Dosages of 300 mg daily for as much as 10 months have been utilized securely. Remain on the safe side and prevent greater dosages when breast-feeding.
    • Bleeding conditions: a specific chemical in propolis may slow blood clot. Taking propolis may increase the danger of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
    • Allergies: some propolis products might be infected with bee byproducts. Usage propolis with caution if you dislike bee by-products.
    • Surgical treatment: a certain chemical in propolis might slow blood clot. Taking propolis may increase the threat of bleeding throughout and after surgery. Stop taking propolis 2 weeks prior to surgical treatment.

    Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

    Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clot.

    Propolis may slow blood clot and increase the threat of bleeding. Taking it with other supplements with comparable effects may increase the threat of bleeding in some people. Examples of supplements with this impact include garlic, ginger, ginkgo, nattokinase, and panax ginseng. (10 ).



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