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A dried laver seaweed pressed into thin sheets and used specifically as a spices or as a wrapper for sushi. 
The word nori is used in the japanese language, to refer to edible varieties of the red seaweed species porphyra. The porphyra yezoensis and the porphyra. Tenera are the main species in this group. Although other varieties of seaweed are included such as some cyanobacteria.
The term nori is also related, to food made from these marine plants. They are prepared by chopping the seaweed in traces and dehydrating them with a process similar to that used on paper.
Thus, the item resulting from the nori seaweeds, is routinely used to roll both, the sushi and the onigiri. The nori is likewise consumed in the form of pasta, skilled with a soy sauce called noritsukudani.
Nori seaweed are likewise used in dry and powder kind, which is called aonori. This presentation performs the role of spice, in common dishes such as okonomiyaki or yakisoba. 
Initially, the term nori was generic and referred to seaweeds, including hijiki. One of the earliest descriptions of nori is dated to around the 8th century. In the taihō code enacted in 701, nori was already included in the form of tax. Regional individuals have actually been described as drying nori in hitachi province fudoki (721– 721), and harvesting of nori was pointed out in izumo province fudoki (713– 733), showing that nori was utilized as food from ancient times. In utsubo monogatari, composed around 987, nori was recognized as a typical food. Nori had actually been consumed as paste type until the sheet kind was invented in asakusa, edo (contemporary tokyo), around 1750 in the edo duration through the approach of japanese paper-making.
The word “nori” first appeared in an english-language publication in c. P. Thunberg’s trav., published in 1796. It was utilized in conjugation as “awa nori”, probably describing what is now called aonori.
The japanese nori industry was in decline after wwii, when japan was in need of all food that could be produced. The decline was due to an absence of understanding of nori’s three-stage life process, such that regional people did not comprehend why standard growing techniques were ineffective. The market was rescued by knowledge deriving from the work of british phycologist kathleen mary drew-baker, who had actually been investigating the organism porphyria umbilicalis, which grew in the seas around wales and was gathered for food (bara lafwr or bara lawr), as in japan. Her work was found by japanese researchers who applied it to artificial techniques of seeding and growing the nori, rescuing the industry. Kathleen baker was hailed as the “mother of the sea” in japan and a statue erected in her memory; she is still revered as the savior of the japanese nori market.
In the 21st century, the japanese nori industry faces a new decline due to increased competition from seaweed manufacturers in china and korea and domestic sales tax walkings.
The word nori started to be used extensively in the united states, and the item (imported in dry form from japan) ended up being commonly offered at natural food shops and asian-american supermarket in the 1960s due to the macrobiotic movement and in the 1970s with the boost of sushi bars and japanese dining establishments. 
Nori farming in japan and china is essentially the only case of the massive application to mariculture of techniques utilized in agriculture and cultivation; the just other comparable large-scale operation being laminaria growing in china and growing of eucheumoid seaweeds around the world. It is a case of full-cycle farming, which does not depend at any time on the caprices of nature – a true case of reasonable exploitation of a natural resource. It is particularly essential to remember that the rearing of the seeding phase- the conchocelis-phase – in the advancement of porphyra is now mostly performed on shore. More consistent lead to porphyra production are sufficient reward for the problem taken, and this procedure now forms a company foundation for the whole market. There is less variation in production, leading ultimately to a more stable market and steadily increasing need.
The british scientist dr kathleen drew-baker (left) of the university of manchester made the discovery that stimulated off the rapid development of the nori cultivation market in japan when she developed that the biography of porphyra umbilicalis includes a shell-borning conchocelis phase.
She is kept in mind by a statue erected by the japanese nori farmers neglecting the sea at kumamoto, and each year she is honoured by a little cermony at the website.
For the japanese and korean nori farmer, success has actually shown up; in the old days the work was cold, sluggish and poorly-paid, today that the market is extremely mechanised, the work is more comfortable, tidy and well-paid. It now brings in the more youthful workers, whereas other fishery industries in which the work is harder and dirtier, need to handle an increasing recruitment issues. This is said to be the main reason why nori farming partly supplanted oyster farming in japan.
Contamination of inshore waters is one of the greatest dangers to the future of the nori industry, although raft farming may assist considerably in this regard.
About 150 types of porphyra are discovered around the world (algaebase), of which about 20 grow on the coast of japan. 2 of these, p. Yezoensis (left) and p. Tenera, are cultivated by the japanese, and the former is said now to form the bulk of the crop. Extensive selective breeding of both species has actually taken place in japan leading to the advancement of two intensely growing cultivars which have actually been offered the names porphyra yezoensis f. Narawaensis miura and porphyra tenera var. Tamatsuensis miura. Much of the pressures being used are really tough to determine and, recently, the polymerase domino effect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (pcr-rflp) have actually been utilized to determine which species is in question with some success.
The thallus of the erect leaf of porphyra species is in the type of a flat, lanceolate or broadly elliptical blade. The fronds are made up completely of either small rectangle-shaped or rounded cells which are arranged in one or, more rarely, two cell layers. The plants generally grow up to 35 cm long in the commercially-used species, seldom to l m; they are dark purple to brownish red. In the wild, porphyra species normally grow attached to rocks or as epiphytes in the intertidal or shallow subtidal and are generally extremely seasonal in their appearance and growth.
Porphyra yezoensis typically grows on open coasts in areas affected by cold ocean currents throughout the year whilst the other species that is commonly cultivated in japan, p. Tenera, prefers warmer waters in sheltered, low salinity locations. The transplant of p. Biography of porphyra © m.d. Guiryyezoensis to growing locations by nori farmers has largely displaced p. Tenera from its previous wild habitats. The biography of both species are approximately the exact same: the blades sprout from conchospores freed by the conchocelis-phase from september to november (short days, reasonably low temperatures) and appear as germlings 1 mm in length from mid- to late october, when the water temperature level drops to 22 ° c. The germlings grow rapidly and form blades 15-20 cm or more long by mid- to late november and thrive during the winter season at temperatures of 3-8 ° c. In april, the fronds begin to decay and have actually vanished by might, when the water temperature level rises to 14 ° c. After fertilization, zygotospores are produced and these are used to grow brand-new conchocelis-phase plants for the next season.
Anori zygotosporest completion of the growing season (late february to early april) high quality, sporulating porphyra plants are selected from the internet. Zygotospores (diploid spores formed by the female gametangial plant; above) are released into a 20-litre container and a suspension is then sprayed onto clean oyster shells utilizing a watering can. About 1 kg of ripe porphyra is needed to seed about 20,000 shells.
The zygotospores (right, under microscope) sprout finest in water of 10-15 ° c to form unbranched filaments that permeate into the shells. Microscopic evaluation is performed and if sufficient spores have penetrated the shells, they are then suitable for the next phase.
Conchocelis phase growing in shells
It has actually been discovered that the very best development of the sporophyte stage happens when the shells are suspended from ropes (below) instead of pushing the bottom of the tanks (left). 2 holes are usually drilled in each shell to make strings of 15 shells, with the ideas touching. This is normally performed at prefectorial (japan is divided into city government areas called prefectures) seedling centres, which are government-sponsored and run. The shells are grown inside your home in tanks 2 x 3 x 0.7 m deep in which 16 bamboo sticks are placed lengthways, simply above the water level, and about 35 strings of shells are hung looped over the sticks. The spaces in which the tanks are put have windows in the roof and walls, which are supplied with drapes to control the light strength.
Nori seedling centre in japan
A prefectorial seedling centre (above) typically has 24 tanks, giving an overall facility for raising about 200,000 shells. The tanks are not aerated but water temperature and light intensity are carefully managed (above). A rise in water temperature in early summer season is preferable and must not drop listed below 23 ° c prematurely as this stimulates early spore development.
Shells with conchocelis growths
Photon irradiance should be kept at about 500 lux (about 10 µmol photons per meter squared per second). Typically, there is no need to alter the seawater in the tanks throughout the summertime season, however if water quality deteriorates then it is restored. The shells and the water typically contain adequate nutrients to feed the conchocelis-phase however small amounts of n and p might be contributed to stimulate the development of the alga. The shells are kept about 5 months in indoor tanks and the conchocelis- phase plants quickly become apparent as greyish-purple areas.
At the seedling centres (above), nets of synthetic fibres 2-3 mm in size and 18.3 m long x 1.5 m broad with a mesh size of 15 cm square (unstretched) are utilized for seeding. The most typical seeding system utilized at present is to position the internet on drums 1.5 m in diameter and 2 m throughout driven by an electrical motor at 2 transformations per minutes. These are dipped into concrete tanks about 7 x 6 x 0.5 m deep to a depth of 0.25 m. About 30 webs are wound around the drums at a time and sporulating conchocelis- phase shells are placed, still attached in strings, on the bottom of the tanks. The rotation of the drums keeps the water adequately unstable to stop the conchospores from settling on the flooring of the tank. It takes about 20-60 min to seed the nets in this way. The fibers of the internet are analyzed microscopically to make sure that an enough variety of spores have settled. One seedling centre may seed approximately 20,000 internet in one season. It takes about 10 shells effectively to seed one net.
Up until reasonably recently, the seeded nets were positioned in the sea as quickly as possible, however recently various approaches of storage have actually been developed as this enables the farmers to extend the growing season by utilizing two succeeding sets of webs on each rack. For short-term storage, webs are kept in concrete basins in seawater but in the longer term, freezer is needed. Provided the nets are folded and covered with polyethylene sheets to keep them moist they can be kept in cold storage for several weeks.
Freezing nori webs in japan
Young nori plants can also be kept at -20 ° c if they are first air-dried to 20-30% wetness (top). They can be kept for more than 6 months utilizing this approach, which has actually the included advantage that contaminants such as diatoms are eliminated.
Nori rack style and area
Racks are constructed before bringing the webs to the seedling centres. Well-sheltered sites are selected, preferabley with current speeds of about 30 cm per second at full tide. The racks include 2 rows, each of 9 long bamboo poles which are driven into the sea bed using a power pump and a rubber tube, which requires water at pressure through a nozzle. The poles are positioned so that a stretched net fits exactly in between them. Usually, four or five such rows are placed beside each other so that most of the poles serve 2 webs. For 5 nets only 54 poles are thus required.
Positioning poles for nori cultivation in japan
On ground that disagrees for rack structure, drifting rafts are utilized, however nori plants need to be exposed to the air from time to time, specifically during the very first three weeks of being taken into the sea. Floating frames, 18 m long, made of plastic tubing are used for this purpose. As much as 20 nets can be attached to a single frame. Having been given the website, the frame is slotted into the raft in such a way that the.
Webs are exposed to the air for a minimum of 2 h every day. Rafts may be constructed of a light bamboo framework which allows the internet to be connected directly to the frame. Styrofoam drifts are placed under the framework when it is necessary to lift the plants out of the water. Nylon frames, anchored to the seabed at the corners, are likewise used and supported by drifts, but a plastic subframe needs to be used to lift the webs out of the water when needed.
In the first month the leaves grow gradually but, once they reach about 1 cm long, development to 10-15 cm can occur in a tidal cycle of 15 days. About 50 days after seeding the internet the fronds are 15-20 cm long. Throughout this duration the plants are especially vulnerable to illness and aspects such as water temperature and salinity have to be carefully thought about and the webs should be reduced and raised to harmonize the tidal cycle.
The choice of a website for nori farming is of important significance. Where there is insufficient shelter, the pacific browse may trigger a great deal of damage, specifically when the fronds are fully-grown. Some rain is a benefit, because it brings nutrients through run-off however low salinities can be negative as this minimizes the plants’ resistance to illness.
Usually, there would not seem to be any severe issue from herbivores however fouling species such as the green algae enteromorpha and ulva and certain diatoms can be bothersome. These can be managed to a degree by mindful control of the levels of the nets however care needs to be required to prevent drying out the nori completely.
About 10 various diseases attack the nori plants including bacteria, infections and fungi. The usual solution for these illness is to pick a level for the internet that optimises the resistance of the plants but is not beneficial to the survival of the pathogen. Because development is much faster at depth, the farmers are inclined to lower the nets, but they are aware that disease will strike more readily if this is done. Cross-breeding of strains to find resistant types might show effective in the future. If disease is observed in the crop, excellent care needs to be taken in cleaning and drying of the internet or a tank of infection could be built up.
Nori is not offered in the fresh state but is instantly dried into sheets. This was previously carried out by a laborious sun-drying process, but the job is now highly mechanised. The harvesters only take what they can process in one day. The nori is first washed with freshwater then fed into a shredding machine which lowers it to pieces 0.5 x 1 cm in size. The cut nori is then completely mixed with freshwater, 4 kg of nori per 100 litres. Packing nori sheets in japanthis nori/water mixture is then fed into a device which rather looks like a paper-making machine; it is metered instantly on to wood frames about 30 cm square on the outside, into which fits mats of split bamboo 20 x 18 cm in size, and put over a wire netting screen. About 600 ml of the mix is fed into each frame and the water drains away through the mats and the screen. The frames then move slowly along a production line and lastly over a heated surface. The nori and the bamboo mats are then eliminated and the frames return in a circle for more nori-water mix. The nori sheets are then piled up and put into an oven to lower the moisture content to about 18%. In order to acquire a good-quality item, the temperature level of the drying procedure must not surpass 50 ° c. The bamboo mats are then removed, the nori is assembled in 10s and.
Packed in bundles of 100s. They are then delivered to a co-operative shipping point. Here they are thoroughly packed and sealed in cellophane so that wetness uptake will not decrease their quality, and shipped to all parts of japan. The total japanese output is about 7 billion sheets. Korean production is 60-100 million sheets. 
Nutrition of nori (seaweed laver)
Below you will discover the nutrition information for a 3.5 oz (100g) of grilled nori:.
- Calories: 188kcal
- Water: 2.3 g
- Overall carbs: 44.3 g.
- dietary fiber: 36g
- Overall fat: 3.7 g
- Protein: 41.4 g
Great vs bad nori: how to choose the very best or good nori for sushi?
The very best nori sheet would be jet black with a glossy shine, consistent thickness throughout the surface, and practically no hole.
Good quality nori when tasted will have umami flavor– the natural sweetness that we enjoy in a subtle way without any unusual or fishy odor. It must not consist of any off-flavors or weirdness that blends from other sort of seaweed. Great nori needs to be crisp in the beginning tip then follow with softness and sweet that melt in your mouth.
Low-grade nori, on the other hand, is unappetizing or often has that mix of flavors, frequently due to combining with other seaweed. The quality is questionable because it is often dry, simple to break when rolling, and kinda chewy/ hard to bite. This low-grade nori is typically can be detected by its color, being brown or lighter green. When raising it over the light instructions, if it has great deals of uneven density, needle holes, etc. that certainly a poorer one.
So when looking for nori, if you simply just want sushi at a budget price, you can select any nori that from a great source i.e safe to consume. Otherwise, besides looking at the label (grade, rate, brand name, and stuff), take a more detailed look at the color, spot holes, surface cover …
And keep in mind, though nori service life is pretty long, the fresher it is the much better the taste. Even the best nori will be deteriorating through time if left out too long or absorbing wetness. Re-roasting is a way to make these nori sheets crisp again. Still, seal leftover/unused sheets in tight zip-lock or airtight container with a desiccant bag for conservation. 
Proven health benefits of nori seaweed
Nori is also referred to as the superfood, and here are some reasons that! It’s said to be a food containing numerous nutrients, some of which can easily be found in the human blood.
Nori elevates the functionality of the brain:
Nori is a good food alternative to promote healthy performance in the brain. This is due to the fact that it consists of omega-3 fatty acids. It assists develop the nervous system and supports the brain.
Nori seaweed promotes bone health:
To have good bone health, a great deal of individuals end up consuming dairy items, especially milk. But did you understand that nori seaweed is a healthy option and provides a good calcium concentration? Consuming it in an affordable quantity of nori will strengthen your bones and likewise your teeth. Attempt consuming this if you are vegan, too, due to the fact that it’s a healthy alternative.
Nori is an anti-inflammatory agent:
In current times and conditions, various human beings have been exposed to multiple toxins and toxins. Nori is extremely healthy and provides maximum advantages most naturally. It serves as an anti-inflammatory representative because of the minerals and vitamins present inside it. These operate in assistance of maintaining health and promotes the immune system keeping you protected.
Nori preserves the function of the thyroid:
Nori includes an excellent amount of iodine and assists in keeping thyroid function. The thyroid is an important part of our body and manages primary functions that assist offer energy. It also raises the metabolism system. Nori can be consumed in such a way to make the thyroid healthy.
Nori promotes functionality of muscles:
Amino acids are the foundation of protein and favorably impact the body. The amino acids present inside nori are alanine, lysine, arginine, and others that are necessary in keeping muscle strength. It likewise assists in making muscle function better, helps burn fat, and decreases fatigue.
Nori is anti-cancer:
Nori has various anti-cancer residential or commercial properties that are responsible for minimizing the threat of cancer in bodies. Several research studies that you can stop approximately 95% cell development if nori is consumed. Nori has anti-mutagenic impacts that play a considerable role in the metabolism, and the presence of vitamins c assists to neutralize the effect of these complimentary radicals. Are you health conscious? Then begin taking in nori to prevent any signs of cancer.
Nori supplies us with antioxidants:
Consuming sources that are abundant in anti-oxidants keep the body healthy. Where spinach is likewise an excellent and healthy option, nori can likewise be taken in routinely to prevent other illness and reinforce the body with anti-oxidants. It’s anti-allergic, too, which is an added benefit.
Nori helps reduce weight:
Most people choose a vegan diet to lower their weight and promote healthy living. That’s specifically what you can accomplish by consuming nori; with a healthy diet plan and an exceptional exercising routine, you can quickly climb the healthy ladder. Nori is low in calories and fat, offering the body with healthy nutrients such as minerals and vitamins, enhancing the body while dieting. Nori can also be eaten as an everyday snack. 
How to make tuna nori covers without the rice
The trick to make the covers work without the rice is to select a minimum of one product that has a sticky texture so that your food will not fall out of the wraps easily.
- Take 2 sheets of nori wraps and gently fold them twice to make 4 squares.
- Cut a slit to the middle of the nori sheets.
- Add the food, beginning with the bottom left corner and clockwise, with avocado, cucumber, canned tuna, and boiled eggs.
- Carefully raise the bottom left corner to fold the avocado over the cucumber and press carefully to help them adhere.
- Keep folding– tuna and eggs– till you get one square wrap.
- Enjoy them right now!
Tips for the most tasty nori wraps!
- Enjoy them right now! Do not wait. Nori covers taste the very best when they are fresh and crisp.
- You can utilize any kind of protein or vegetables you desire but keep them as thin and flat as possible so it’s much easier to fold.
- Select at least one item that has a little sticky texture so your covers are less likely to fall apart. There’s a factor sushi uses rice (i.e. Rice helps ingredients to stick) so if you go the low carbohydrate path, consider something else (e.g. Avocado, sandwich cheese, and so on) 
- 1 sheet nori (dried seaweed), cut into thin strips
- 1 teaspoon olive oil, or as needed
- Salt to taste
- Preheat oven to 300 degrees f (150 degrees c). Gently oil a baking sheet.
- Organize nori smooth-side down on the prepared flat pan. Lightly brush olive oil over nori; season with salt.
- Bake in the preheated oven until nori is dry and crispy, 3 to 4 minutes. 
Dishes using nori
In addition to the dishes that are on this site, thanks to the bloggers who participated in this roundup for approval to link to their nori recipes and share their photos.
Nori rice bowl with tofu, cucumber, avocado
Basic nori rice bowl with tofu, cucumber, and avocado: basic nori rice bowls are subtly instilled with the delicious sea veggie. Embellished with crispy tofu, cucumber, and avocado, it’s like veggie sushi deconstructed.
Deconstructed sushi bowl – vegan sushi salad
Vegetable sushi salad (aka deconstructed sushi bowl: here’s a fun and cost-effective method to enjoy the flavors of vegetable sushi however not the mess of making it– a yummy sushi salad bowl including rice, avocado, carrots, nori, and ginger.
This site’s post on gomasio and furikake, 2 standard japanese spices gives instructions on how to make them quickly in the house. The latter is based upon sea veggie, and in this case, our top option is nori.
Bagels with vegan carrot lox
Simplest vegan carrot lox: this recipe starts with wavy-cut carrots, which are the ideal size, shape, and thickness to work as a lox replacement. Then they’re marinated in a salt water that includes nori for the subtle taste of the sea.
Chickpea-based vegan tuna
Vegan tuna: from enjoying it vegan, here’s a plant-based tuna salad using chickpeas and subtly seasoned with nori. It’s absolutely scrumptious and tastes incredibly near to the real thing!
Vegan miso soup with nori
Easy miso soup: an easy miso soup recipe that makes a perfect nutritious umami-packed savory vegan lunch, from pleased kitchen area rocks. Reassuring, yummy, and ready in just 15 minutes.
Vegan crab cakes
Vegan crab cakes: from a virtual vegan, incredibly tasty vegan crab cakes with terrific texture and a taste of the sea thanks to the addition of crumbled up nori sheets.
Vegan clam-less chowder
Vegan clam chowder: wow, it’s veggie?! This vegan clam chowder is so scrumptious and easy to make with simply 5 components! It is extremely fast and best for meal preparation for a quick dinner when you remain in a rush. Nori adds the taste of the sea.
Vegan fish-less tacos
Best vegan fish tacos: if you’re missing fish tacos, no sweat vegan’s blackened fish-free version won’t dissatisfy. The nori and lime juice provide the tofu an intense seafood flavor, while the sweetness of the salsa and creaminess of the slaw round out each best bite.
Deep-fried nori-wrapped tofu
Deep-fried nori-wrapped tofu: biting into deep-fried nori wrapped tofu will make you think you are eating a piece of fish, except these are completely vegan-friendly, from v for veggy.
Nori spinach rolls
Nori spinach rolls: another from v for veggy, fine, this is sort of like sushi, however not precisely. Tthis dish is for tasty little treats with nori and seaweed. These are ideal for serving as an appetiser or side meal. 
Nori is typically considered as safe to consume in moderate amounts and supplies an abundance of healthy residential or commercial properties. Nevertheless, extreme intake of nori may have dangerous adverse effects. If you experience medical complications or take prescription medications, talk to your medical service provider regarding your dietary requirements.
High sodium content
According to the medlineplus, sodium is need by the body for correct functioning of nerves and muscles and to keep a healthy blood pressure. The 2015-2020 dietary guidelines for americans recommends 2,300 milligrams of sodium every day; nevertheless, average american grownups consume 3,400 milligrams of sodium daily, putting them at risk for health problems.
One full sheet of roasted nori consists of 3 milligrams of sodium. While this quantity may appear insignificant, some flavored nori sheets contain extra sodium. When dining out in a japanese dining establishment, consumption of sodium might accumulate very rapidly amongst the nori, soy sauce and added salt for flavoring. Individuals on a low-sodium diet plan should restrict their sodium consumption, as excess sodium may lead to health problems such as heart disease, cirrhosis and persistent kidney illness.
Source of dha
Dha, or docosahexaenoic acid, is a kind of omega-3 fatty acid. While is it frequently found in seafood items, such as salmon, mackerel, tuna and sardines, seaweed is a vegetarian source of dha. The office of dietary supplements notes that omega-3 fatty acids like dha promotes appropriate development of the nerve system and supports brain and vision health. However, ods also reports that dha might also interact with specific blood pressure medications.
With certain high blood pressure medications. Dha might decrease blood pressure, therefore boosting the results of prescription blood pressure medications.
Rich in vitamin k
According to usda fooddata central, seaweed is a rich in vitamin k. The linus pauling institute specifies that vitamin k acts as an anticoagulant and protects against arterial blood clotting, thereby permitting blood to stream freely to the heart, lung and brain.
However, excessive quantities of vitamin k may connect with blood thinning medications, such as warfarin. Vitamin k might make warfarin a less effective drug and might increase the threat of embolism and stroke. If you’re taking warfarin, or another blood thinner, speak with your medical professional about nori and how it can suit your diet strategy.
Additional health concerns
According to a may 2019 evaluation released in nutrition evaluations, seaweed provides heavy metals, such as arsenic. While the quantities in a single sheet of nori might be low, there is the possibility of bioaccumulation with time. The authors of the research study also note there is a prospective threat of foodborne health problem with routine use of edible seaweed. 
Patients taking warfarin and consuming a large amount of food containing seaweed might experience a change in worldwide normalized ratio because of seaweed’s high vitamin k content. 
Nori (海苔) is a dried edible seaweed utilized in japanese food, made from types of the red algae genus pyropia including p. Yezoensis and p. Tenera. It has a strong and distinctive flavor, and is typically used to wrap rolls of sushi or onigiri (rice balls). The ended up dried sheets are made by a shredding and rack-drying process that looks like papermaking. They are sold in packs in supermarket for culinary functions. Given that nori sheets easily take in water from the air and break down, a desiccant is required when keeping nori for any substantial time.