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A mediterranean pine tree (pinus pinaster) having long needles in clusters of two, thick bark, and large cones, and extensively cultivated for timber, pulp, and resin. (1 )

Introduction

Maritime pine trees (pinus pinaster) grow in countries on the mediterranean sea. Its bark may be helpful for asthma and enhanced leg flow.

Maritime pine includes chemicals that might enhance blood flow, promote the immune system, decrease swelling, avoid infections, and have antioxidant impacts. Maritime evergreen that grow in southwest france are utilized to make pycnogenol, the trademarked name for a specific maritime pine bark extract.

Maritime pine bark extract is utilized for asthma, high cholesterol, decrease in memory, adhd, and lots of other conditions, but there is no good clinical proof to support much of these usages. (2 ).

History

Pinus pinaster is a popular subject in ecology because of its bothersome development and spread in south africa for the past 150 years after being imported into the region at the end of the 17th century (1685– 1693). It was discovered spreading out in the cape peninsula by 1772. towards completion of the 18th century (1780 ), p. Pinaster was extensively planted, and at the start of the 19th century (1825– 1830), p. Pinaster was planted commercially as a wood resource and for the forestry industry. The pine tree species invades large areas and more specifically fynbos greenery. Fynbos greenery is a fire-prone shrubland plant life that is found in the southern and southwest cape of south africa. It is discovered in higher abundance close to water courses. Dispersal, habitat loss, and fecundity are all elements that impact spread rate. The species favors acidic soils with medium to high-density vegetation, however it can likewise grow in standard soils and even in sandy and bad soils, where only few business types can grow. (3 ).

Description

Maritime pine is an evergreen, coniferous types of tree that grows to mature heights of 100 feet (30 m), with a frequently rather sinuous stem (straight in some locations, significantly corsica and northwestern africa) and a normally open crown of regular, candelabra-like upswept branches, broadly ovoid-conic when young, ending up being irregular and denser with age.

  • Bark is really thick, flaky or plated, fissured, patterned red-brown, blackish and enthusiast.
  • Branching is primarily uninodal, however periodically multinodal on vigorous young trees.
  • Shoots are rough and stout, measuring 0.28 to 0.6 inch (7 – 15 mm) thick, colored enthusiast to yellow-brown.
  • Foliar buds are big, cylindric to ovoid-acute, with red-brown scales having long complimentary, revolute tips, fringed with white hairs.
  • Adult leaves are kept for 1.5 to 3 years, measuring 4.8 to 10 inches (12 – 25 cm) long, borne in fascicles of two (sometimes 3), with a persistent 0.8 inch (2 cm) sheath. They are green to yellow-green in color, often tinged glaucous, spreading, extremely stout, about 0.08 to 0.088 inch (2 – 2.2 mm) thick, with serrulate margins, and fine lines of stomata on all faces.
  • Juvenile leaves are strongly glaucous, determining 1.2 to 2.4 inches (3 – 6 cm) long, on slim 0.12 inch (3 mm) shoots, growing for the very first 2 to 5 years of the tree’s life.
  • Seed cones are a little deflexed on short stout stalks, balanced, difficult, heavy, and ovoid-conic fit, each measuring 3.6 to 7.2 inches (9 – 18 cm) long, by 1.6 to 2.4 inches (4 – 6 cm) broad when closed, ripening rich glossy chestnut-brown in april 2 years after pollination, and opening the very same summertime or as much as ten years later on, to 2.8 to 4.4 inches (7 – 11 cm) broad.
  • Seed scales are stout, thick, woody, and stiff; the apophysis is 0.4 to 0.64 inch (10 – 16 mm) long by 0.72 to 1.04 inches (18 – 26 mm) broad, with a rhomboid overview, and a strong raised transverse ridge; the stout umbo is dorsal, colored blackish gray, and measures 0.16 to 0.28 inch (4 – 7 mm) broad and 0.12 inch (3 mm) high.
  • Seeds are shiny blackish brown above, matte-gray below. Each measures 0.28 to 0.44 inch (7 – 11 mm) by 0.2 inch (5 mm) with an 0.72 to 1 inch (18 – 25 mm) by 0.4 inch (10 mm) wing, that is enthusiast in color with many straight dark brown streaks; it is easily gotten rid of from the seed. (4 )

Environmental requirements

  1. Pinaster endures various climate conditions depending upon the subspecies. In general, it happens naturally in warm temperate areas consisting of the mediterranean area, with an oceanic influence on environment, primarily in humid and sub-humid areas, where annual rainfall is greater than 600 mm. In spite of that, it is possible for trees to make it through in locations with only 400 mm yearly rainfall, providing that there is sufficient atmospheric wetness. In particular, the southern provenances (p. Pinaster subsp. Pinaster) might grow well in semi-arid conditions. However, it will grow best in areas with a mean yearly precipitation of 850 mm, with at least 75 mm in the duration in between might and september. In its native variety it just withstands an optimum of 100 successive days without rains, but when used in plantations in some locations it can endure an optimum of 150 days of dry spell. Maritime pine can not tolerate shade, and grows finest at low and medium altitudes.
  2. Pinaster might be found in both flat and mountainous websites in its native variety, but usually at low to moderate elevations. The subspecies atlantica is less tolerant of high elevation than the subspecies pinaster. It seems to choose siliceous soils with a coarse texture, especially sandy soils, however it can endure other soil types. The subspecies pinaster can tolerate some calcareous soils, especially when they have a coarse texture and are free-draining, whereas subsp. Atlantica, nevertheless, has a low tolerance to limestone soils, and exhibits a clear preference for sandy silicate soils, and has played an essential function in the afforestation of loose dune along the western coast of the iberian peninsula especially in northern and central portugal. It has actually adjusted well to a substrate of silicate origin with low aggregation, poor in major nutrients and organic matter. Afforestation of these areas was carried out throughout the late 1800s and very first half of the 1900s, and played a significant function in dune debt consolidation and soil improvement. Similarly, the landes area of southwestern france, with sandy soils, has actually been thoroughly planted with p. Pinaster. In south africa, a research study of four invasive pines discovered that soil ph was the most essential predictor for the distribution of isolated trees, whereas the establishment of thick pine stands was mostly determined by fire history. (5 )

Distribution

Maritime pine (pinus pinaster) is a fast-growing, medium-sized coniferous tree native to the western mediterranean sea. It has been cultivated and is now naturally discovered in other parts of central and southern europe and in north africa.

The wood is utilized for building and constructions, furniture and poles, while its resin is tapped to make rosin and turpentine. Other usages consist of stabilisation of dunes and slopes, as shelterbelts near seaside locations and for production of plant nursery substrates.

The light-demanding tree consists of several different subspecies with high genetic variety and is discovered in a broad eco-friendly range. Originally, the tree grew in warm and humid regions but, as a result of several years of cultivation and adaptation outside its natural variety, it is now able to endure various conditions, including frost, summer drought and calcareous and poor soils. It grows in elevations in between sea level and 2000 m in pure or mixed stands. Maritime pine is considered intrusive in the southern hemisphere. (6 ).

What is french maritime pine bark extract?

A dietary supplement containing an extract gotten from the french maritime pine bark pinus pinaster, with possible immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. The french maritime pine bark extract consists of high quantities of the phytochemicals proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins have the ability to scavenge free radicals, and therefore might prevent cellular damage. This extract may likewise ameliorate the symptoms of lymphedema and improve blood circulation. It might likewise stimulate the immune system and have antioxidant impacts. (7 ).

What is it used for?

Traditional/ethnobotanical uses

In 1535, a french explorer is stated to have actually utilized tea made from the bark of the maritime pine to deal with scurvy among his sailors when his ship became icebound. The extract has actually been utilized for anemia, swelling, and heart/blood vessel conditions. Pine bark has been utilized as a food source in emergencies. Pine bark extract is readily available without a prescription in us health food shops and drug stores, as well as from online sources.

General uses

Pine bark extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions and has been studied for a large range of ailments, consisting of asthma, attention deficit disorder, long-term blood flow problems, heart/blood vessel conditions, diabetes, and impotence. However, lots of medical studies have actually been little and badly designed. (8 ).

Mechanism of action

The main constituents of pine bark extracts are procyanidins and phenolic acids. Pine bark extract serves as an antioxidant by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and reducing production of peroxides. It increases the activities of antioxidant enzymes by increasing the intracellular glutathione levels. In addition to increasing no production which induces vasodilation, pine bark extract also blocks the nf-kb activation promoted by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and inhibits production of adhesion proteins that cause inflammation and atherosclerosis.

In vitro, pycnogenol induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and lowered neuronal apoptosis, an essential feature of alzheimer’s disease, by decreasing free radical generation. In animal research studies, cardioprotective impacts were also credited to totally free extreme scavenging. (9 ).

Health benefits of pine bark extract

In southern france, the lovely and rich forests are home to a types of french evergreen (pinus pinaster) which contain distinct health-promoting residential or commercial properties. Its usage dates back to the 1500s when french explorer jacques cartier and his sailors battled with scurvy– frank vitamin c shortage– throughout their long cruising trips from france to the new world. The story goes that very first countries people shared their ancestral wisdom with cartier and utilized the regional evergreen bark as a preparation (e.g. Natural tea) to prevent scurvy.

Today, we understand that pine bark is a good source of vitamin c (the cure for scurvy) as well as numerous phytochemicals, natural plant substances that support better health. The “all-stars” of the group are proanthocyanidins, powerful antioxidant compounds (more potent than vitamin c and e) that provide a wealth of included health advantages. Let’s take a closer look below.

Increase antioxidant status

If you’re overweight, out of shape, or in poor health, your body will produce an excess of totally free extreme substances that set off swelling throughout the body, damaging your dna and compromising your health. Anti-oxidants snuff out these internal fires. Research study has shown that pycnogenol– a patented formula of pine bark extract– has the ability to avoid and decrease this oxidative damage from free radicals.ensuring you consume a diet plan high in vegetables and fruit is likewise essential to lay the foundation for robust antioxidant consumption (coffee is another great source, just keep in mind to ditch the sugar!).

Enhance erectile dysfunction (blood flow)

Pine bark extract has a substantial influence on nitric oxide (no) levels in the body, which are responsible for vasodilation and enhancing blood circulation. A current study discovered the combination of pine bark extract and arginine (an amino acid that likewise boosts no production) worked for improving moderate to moderate erectile dysfunction.if you struggle with low sex drive or erectile dysfunction, or struggle with high blood pressure, enhancing no levels in the body is an effective technique for assisting to reverse these conditions.

Balance blood sugar level

Pine bark extract might provide some added advantages for you if you battle with high blood sugar, pre-diabetes, or diabetes. A double blind, placebo-controlled research study of 77 diabetic clients taking their prescription medications, together with 100mg of supplemental pycnogenol, found higher enhancement in blood glucose control and cardiovascular health when pine bark extract was integrated with diabetic medications. (make sure to speak to your medical professional before combining any supplements with existing medications you’re taking.).

Battle acute rhinitis

There is nothing more irritating than a nagging cold; it stalls your productivity at work and in the fitness center. A research study of 146 individuals experiencing a common cold found supplementing with pycnogenol was able to reduce the duration (i.e. The number of days) and severity (i.e. The strength of the signs you experience) of the colds. This is great news for maintaining your pace, even if you have actually got the sniffles.

Boost brain function

If you have actually been struggling with forgetting small details– like where you put your car secrets or what you’re expected to pick up for dinner– you may be suffering from the early indications of age-related cognitive decline. Stress, bad diet plan, and lack of sleep can all add to sub-optimal brain function, and while diet and exercise are wonderful for boosting healthy brain function, so too is pine bark extract. New research study shows that adults over the age of 55, supplementing with pycnogenol over the course of one year, revealed remarkable lead to brain related tasks compared to placebo groups. The researchers believe the benefits stem from pine bark extract’s antioxidant effects and capability to reduce oxidative stress (associated with poor diet plan, high stress, absence of exercise, and so on).

Protect skin from sun damage

Getting enough sun exposure and vitamin d is essential for your health and vigor. New research study shows that not getting enough sun exposure is as dangerous to your health as smoking.unfortunately; you do not want to sacrifice your skin along the way. The addition of additional pycnogenol has actually been revealed to provide protection from hazardous uvb rays and may reduce hyperpigmentation and improve skin barrier function. If you spend a great deal of time in the sun, this can be a great included skin assistance.

Minimize inflammation

Cytokines are a group of pro-inflammatory molecules that are released when you get a cold or influenza, struggle with a fall or injury (or train too hard in the gym!), or if you’re fighting with a chronic health condition. Research shows that pine bark extract can lowering pro-inflammatory cytokines il-1 and il-6, responsible for a number of the adverse impacts of persistent inflammation.

Pine bark extract can make a great addition to your nutritional arsenal for its potent antioxidant assistance, along with its extra assistance for blood flow, blood glucose, inflammation, immunity, brain function and skin assistance. Pycnogenol is a standardized supplement formula ensured to consist of at least 65-75% proanthocyanidins, the active component that sets off all these advantages. Remember, a great diet and routine workout must constantly be the structure for developing your finest health. Nevertheless, in some cases the body requires a little extra assistance and additional pycnogenol can go a long way to keeping your brain and body sharp this winter season. (10 ).

Other potential usages

Pine bark extracts are likewise being examined for a plethora of other uses in human, animal, and test-tube research studies. These consist of:.

  • Healthy aging
  • Wound healing
  • Menopause bone loss
  • Alzheimer’s illness
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd)
  • Skin health
  • Athletic performance
  • Improved cognition
  • Impotence

That said, there’s not yet sufficient proof to completely support these uses.

Summary

Pine bark extract is being studied as a healing choice to treat various conditions. Its capabilities to minimize swelling and act as an antioxidant make it a strong prospect to deal with chronic illness. (11 ).

Adverse effects of maritime pine

There suffices research study out there on pine bark extract to understand that it tends to cause some annoying (however generally mild) side effects. These could consist of:.

  • Lightheadedness
  • Stomach irritation
  • Irritation
  • Low energy
  • Headaches
  • Mouth sores
  • Bad breath

Exist any serious downsides?

Happy you asked. Since human studies are doing not have, pine bark extract is * possibly safe * when taken by mouth in dosages of 50 to 450 milligrams day-to-day (depending upon what it is being taken for) for as much as 1 year. That stated, it’s always a really great idea to talk with your physician prior to adding any brand-new supplement to your regimen.

Keep in mind! Even if something is “natural” does not automatically indicate it benefits you or even safe.

Another important fyi: some people might be at risk of potentially major negative effects from pine bark extract. You should not take the stuff.

if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. There’s not enough proof to say that it’s for sure safe, so don’t risk it.

You have an autoimmune condition. Given that pine bark extract can promote the body immune system, it may make your signs even worse.

You take antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs. The supplement might up your danger for bleeding if you’re taking these medications.

You have diabetes. It’s possible that pine bark extract could mess with your blood sugar level. (12 ).

Pycnogenol vs. Pine bark extract

Pycnogenol is a trademarked name for pine bark extract, and there is little to no distinction in between the two in terms of structure or impacts. You may utilize pine bark extract or pycnogenol to help deal with a variety of medical conditions, consisting of chronic venous insufficiency, retinopathy or impotence. Before you take pycnogenol or pine bark extract, consult your doctor to go over the appropriate dosage and prospective health dangers.

Recognition

French marine pine bark extract is frequently offered under the name pycnogenol. It is used to prevent and deal with persistent venous deficiency, along with several other medical conditions, according to the memorial sloan-kettering cancer center. Pycnogenol basically includes pine bark extract from the pinus maritima tree. The herbal remedy is often likewise called french maritime pine bark extract, pygenol or oligomeric proanthocyanidin (opc).

Function

Pine bark extract and pycnogenol include opcs, also called procyanidolic oligomers (pcos), which are likewise discovered in grape seed extract, reports the university of pittsburgh medical center (upmc). Opcs appear to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and antimicrobial actions and may act to promote your body immune system, protect against atherosclerosis and avoid certain types of cancers, according to the sloan-kettering. Particularly, the opcs in pine bark extract and pycnogenol seem to prevent dripping in the blood vessels, and the flavonoids called catechin and taxifolin in the herb stimulate nitric oxide production in the body, which unwinds your capillary, drugdigest.org describes.

Results

Both pine bark extract and the product pycnogenol have similar usages, generally for dealing with or preventing chronic venous deficiency, drugdigest.org says. They may also assist in dealing with high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, different inflammation-related conditions and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as aid in preventing cancer, keeps in mind sloan-kettering. Pycnogenol and pine bark extract might help treat easy bruising, varicose veins, edema, diabetes and diabetic neuropathy or retinopathy, hemorrhoids, premenstrual syndrome and traveler’s apoplexy, according to the upmc. You might take pine bark extract or pycnogenol to assist support weight-loss and enhance night vision, as well as to deal with lupus, menopausal signs, periodontal illness, asthma, allergies and liver cirrhosis. No definitive scientific research study supports using pycnogenol or pine bark extract to prevent or deal with any medical condition, nevertheless. (13 ).

Dosing

The following doses have actually been studied in scientific research:.

By mouth:

  • For allergies: 50 mg two times daily.
  • For asthma in children: 1 mg per pound of body weight given up 2 divided doses.
  • For poor flow: 45-360 mg daily, or 50-100 mg 3 times daily.
  • For illness of the retina, consisting of those related to diabetes: 50 mg 3 times daily.
  • For mild hypertension: 200 mg of pycnogenol daily.
  • For enhancing exercise capability in professional athletes: 200 mg daily. (14 )

Interaction

Abciximab

The threat or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with abciximab.

Abrocitinib.

The danger or severity of bleeding and thrombocytopenia can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with abrocitinib.

Aceclofenac

The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when aceclofenac is combined with maritime pine extract.

Acemetacin

The threat or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when acemetacin is integrated with maritime pine extract.

Acenocoumarol

The threat or intensity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with acenocoumarol.

Acetylsalicylic acid

Acetylsalicylic acid might increase the antiplatelet activities of maritime pine extract.

Alclofenac

The danger or intensity of bleeding can be increased when alclofenac is integrated with maritime pine extract.

Aldesleukin

The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with aldesleukin.

Alemtuzumab

The risk or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with alemtuzumab.

Alteplase

The risk or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with alteplase. (15 ).

Safety measures

Prior to utilizing pine bark extract, inform your physician about your current list of medications, over-the-counter products (e.g. Vitamins, organic supplements, and so on), allergic reactions, pre-existing diseases, and present health conditions (e.g. Pregnancy, upcoming surgery, and so on). Some health conditions might make you more prone to the side-effects of the drug. Take as directed by your doctor or follow the direction printed on the product insert. Dosage is based upon your condition. Tell your physician if your condition continues or intensifies. Important therapy points are listed below.

Pregnant, planning to get pregnant or breastfeeding. (16 ).

Conclusions

Regarding the food industry, pine bark extracts have actually been successfully utilized as anti-oxidants in the meat market and have actually been proposed as intriguing additives for the juice market and songzhen noodles production. On the other hand, various pinus spp bark extracts have actually been tested against a large range of disorders -cancer, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, neuroprotective effect and other oxidative tension and inflammatory-related diseases. Both in vitro and in vivo assays recommend an appealing future for pine as an adjuvant treatment. (17 ).

References

  1. Https://www.thefreedictionary.com/maritime+pine
  2. Https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1019/maritime-pine
  3. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/pinus_pinaster
  4. Https://conifersociety.org/conifers/pinus-pinaster/
  5. Https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/41688
  6. Https://www.euforgen.org/species/pinus-pinaster/
  7. Https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-drug/def/french-maritime-pine-bark-extract
  8. Https://www.drugs.com/npc/maritime-pine.html
  9. Https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/integrative-medicine/herbs/pine-bark-extract
  10. Https://www.naturesfare.com/health/7-health-benefits-pine-bark-extract/
  11. Https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/pine-bark-extract#downsides
  12. Https://greatist.com/health/pine-bark-extract#risks
  13. Https://www.livestrong.com/article/291067-pycnogenol-vs-pine-bark-extract/
  14. Https://www.rxlist.com/pycnogenol/supplements.htm
  15. Https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/db15786
  16. Https://www.tabletwise.net/medicine/pine-bark-extract#precautions
  17. Https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/s0924224418301341