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Mahonia

    Mahonia aquifolium is the result of cross-fertilization and hybridization of M. repens (which is morphologically comparable to M. aquifolium) and M. pinnata. The Oregon Grape has constantly been found in the Pacific Northwest, but was introduced into Europe 1822 and has become a very successful intrusive species. Like lots of plants, the Oregon Grape produces blue berries that are consumed by mainly birds which are dispersed to surrounding areas.Mahonia aquifolium Grapes: Thanks to James Gaither Although the primary way of reproduction is through the production of seeds, the Oregon Grape is likewise understood to recreate by root sprouts and stem layers. Self pollination is another mode of reproduction for M. aquifolium, and for lots of other plants as well. All plants though exhibition Alternation of Generations, and the Oregon Grape happens to be a control sporophyte considering that it is a plant that produces fruit. [2]

    More about Mahonia

    Synonyms: Berberis aquifolium, Berberis piperiana, Mahonia piperiana, Odostemon aquifolium.

    Typical Names: Hollyleaved barberry.

    Description: Outside it’s native range, has the ability to displace native greenery. Medicinal uses of this plant consists of skin diseases and kept in mind for its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial homes.

    Habit: Broadleaf evergreen, irregular branching with upright to spreading out habits, shoots are thick and branch rarely, stoloniferous and usually 3-6 feet high and 5 ft broad, slow growing.

    Leaves: Alternate, pinnately compound, evergreen leaves, brochures attach directly to the rachis, brochures have spines, resembles English Holly, dark glossy green in color, brand-new growth emerges reddish or bronze, 6-12 in long and contains 7-12 brochures. Evergreen foliage turns purple-bronze in the winter.

    Stems: Slim, stiff, normally upright, and normally without branches. The wood is whitish and fragile and has a considerable pith, practically cork-like look. Bark of young stems is green; older bark is rough and gray-brown with yellow inner bark.

    Flowers: Bright yellow in color, perfect, found in a terminal (in some cases lateral) racemes. Flowers have the aroma of honey. Blossoms from April through early May.

    Fruit and seeds: Fruits are held in clusters, modification from green to blue-black in late summertime, specific fruits are 0.3 – 0.5″ in size.

    Habitat: Belonging To British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, northern California and northern Idaho. Found in moist, organically abundant, acidic, well-drained soils.

    Reproduction: By seed.

    Comparable types: English Holly (Ilex aquifolium).

    Monitoring and quick action: Hand pull or dig. [3]

    Health Benefits Of Mahonia (Oregon Grapes)

    Oregon grape is known for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal homes and its extracts have been used to deal with physical problems like dysentery, jaundice, peptic ulcers, and a variety of skin conditions too. Furthermore, the extract is exceptionally useful for psoriasis, eczema, athlete’s foot, acne, and other fungal infections. It likewise alleviates swelling, itching, and irritation. Listed below are a few of the popular health advantages of using Oregon grapes.

    1. Carry out natural anti-depressant

    Extended sadness, stress and anxiety, the absence of appetite, insomnia, or excessive drowsiness are some common indications of anxiety. The shortage of neurotransmitters like serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine in the brain causes anxiety.

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme that decays these neurotransmitters. Research has given indications that berberine has the ability to prevent MAO activity and relieve symptoms of depression. By hindering MAO, berberine raises the concentration of essential neurotransmitters in the brain, offering a clear improvement in the pharmacological treatment of depression.

    2. Secure versus inflammations

    berberine present in Oregon grape helps to slow irregular cell growth in the skin and decreases swelling. It can relieve the itching triggered by skin problem such as acne, eczema, psoriasis and allergic rashes.

    3. For much better Skin Conditions

    When used on the skin, the Oregon grape has been discovered to fight particular skin irritations. Scientists have concluded that herbal remedies are typically more effective on dermatological conditions than pharmaceuticals, and the Oregon grape’s power to assist fight psoriasis and atopic dermatitis would appear to support that claim.

    4. Digestive Health

    The bitterness of this herb likewise has a favorable impact on the digestion system. It has a sedative result on the smooth muscles lining the digestive system and motivates the flow of bile, which loosens up waste in the digestive system and helps prevent various complications, such as constipation, stomach cramps, diverticulosis, piles, gallbladder disease, and irritable bowel syndrome.

    5. Liver Health

    Oregon grape root is famous amongst herbalists for its capability to stimulate liver function, improve the flow of bile, and for blood cleaning. Oregon grape root uses have typically included dealing with both liver blockage and transmittable conditions of both the stomach and intestinal tracts. Another benefit of Oregon grape root is its functioning as an antimicrobial.

    6. Function as antifungal

    Oregon grape berries act as antifungals. berberine found in Oregon grape is the prospective to combat versus a large range of bacteria and fungis. berberine has the ability to prevent the development of numerous Candida fungus species, including Candida albicans.

    There is also an indication that berberine eliminates Candida yeast pressures that have become resistant to pharmaceutical antifungals such as fluconazole. Scientist discovered that berberine was not just capable to hinder the growth of the Candida fungus strains however of destruct the yeast cell till it could not make it through. It might likewise damage the Candida albicans plasma membrane.

    7. Carry out anti-amoebocidic

    berberine deals with human cells’ DNA to prevent amoebas from taking hold in the body. To consume this herb you can take it efficiently as casts, glycerites, capsules, powder, oil, and salves. It’s very helpful to take Oregon grape on a trip with you where the health is poor.

    8. Bone Strengthener

    Oregon grape root consists of a number of alkaloids that give it a very bitter taste that can take some getting used to if taken directly. However, the favorable advantages of these alkaloids far exceed the short-term pain that their bitter taste might cause. In China, where Oregon grape root is also replaced for the herb Coptis, research study has actually shown that one of the alkaloids the plant includes, berberine, can assist reinforce bone marrow and assist chemotherapy and radiation patients in their recovery.

    9. Fights versus cancer

    Oregon grape is fantastic to combat against cancer. Researches have revealed the relationship of berberine and the cancer-killing effect. Researchers have discovered that not just does berberine aid with healing liver cancer, but it also aids with certain lung and stomach cancers, blood cancers, specific skin cancers, and an aggressive (extremely metastatic) type of breast cancer.

    Traditional uses and advantages of Mahonia/Oregon grape

    • Some Plateau Indian tribes used Oregon-grape to treat dyspepsia.
    • Particular extracts from Mahonia aquifolium might work in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis.
    • Oregon grape was often utilized by numerous native North American Indian people to treat loss of appetite and debility.
    • Its present herbal usage is mainly in the treatment of gastritis and general digestive weakness, to stimulate the kidney and gallbladder function, and to reduce catarrhal problems.
    • Root and root bark are alterative, blood tonic, cholagogue, diuretic, laxative, and tonic.
    • It enhances food digestion and absorption and is taken internally in the treatment of psoriasis, syphilis, hemorrhages, stomach problems, and impure blood conditions.
    • It has been used as a gargle for aching throats and as a wash for blurred or bloodshot eyes.
    • Fruit is an exceptional mild and safe laxative.
    • berberine, universally present in roots of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic.
    • Considering that it is not substantially absorbed by the body, it is utilized orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, specifically bacterial dysentery.
    • It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza types (Licorice) since this nullifies the results of the berberine.
    • berberine has also revealed anti-tumor activity.
    • It is often used in the treatment of jaundice, liver disease, cirrhosis, and general digestion issues.
    • Oregon grape can kill or suppress the development of yeast and other fungal infections, staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, Vibrio cholera, and other damaging microorganisms.
    • Cast of the herb is used generally as both oral and topical herbal remedy to treat eczema, acne, conjunctivitis, and herpes.
    • It is also used in the treatment of gall bladder illness, hemorrhages, and a couple of forms of cancer.
    • Native American people utilized Mahonia aquifolium as a treatment for fungal infections, skin issues, and dysentery.
    • Numerous tribal communities likewise utilized it for intermittent fevers accompanied by diarrhea.
    • It was utilized by the Apache neighborhood as a gum remedy.
    • It was likewise utilized for tuberculosis infections by the Nitinaht, Sanspoil, and Miwok individuals.
    • The Blackfoot community used it as a blood medicine, infant remedy, and rheumatism.
    • It was considered to be a reliable treatment for liver and gallbladder disorders, gastrointestinal infections, irregularity, malaria, syphilis, and uterine hemorrhage.

    Ayurvedic Health advantages of Oregon grape

    Candidiasis: Take Oregon grape (Barberry) decoction. Consume 2-3 cups a day. OR have Barberry capsules. Else you can have Barberry extract. Barberry Tincture. Take 25-50 drops 3 times a day. (Care: Grownups- Do not take after 7 days. Kids- Do not take after 3 days. Avoid use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.).

    Liver Tonic: Put One tablespoon Oregon grape root in one cup of boiling water. Steep for 5 minutes and filter. Take One tablespoon 3-4 times a day.

    Giardiasis: Purchase Berberis Aquifolium– Mother Tincture from a Homeopathic Shop. Take 10 drops of this tincture in one glass of water, once a day after meals.

    Acne: Take 1 tsp of chopped dried Oregon grape root, 1 tsp chopped Goldenseal root, and 1 tsp of powdered Lavender. Mix them well. Boil in a glass of water for 20 minutes. Cool. Wash your face with it two times a day. OR: Add 1 tsp of powdered Oregon grape root and Goldenseal root in a few drops of warm water. Prepare a paste. Add 4-5 drops of Lavender Oil. Use on the affected location and let it dry. Rinse. Apply Aloe Vera gel if the skin gets dry.

    Acne: Prepare a tincture of Oregon grape, Berberis Aristata, Coptis, and Golden Seal. Take 18-20 drops in 1/4 cup of water thrice a day as much as 2 weeks.

    Blurred Vision: Take the leaves and the Flowers of Chickweed, Barberry, Marigold, Goldenseal, Oregon grape, Eyebright, Cornflowers. Prepare an infusion. Let it cool. Usage as an eyewash, 2-3 times a day.

    Blurred Vision: Take the leaves and the Flowers of Eyebright, Goldenseal, Oregon grape, Chamomile, Marigold, Witch Hazel. Prepare an infusion. Use the infusion to dampen a soft cloth. Keep it over your eyelids, and rest for 10 minutes.

    Acne: Take one tablespoon each of dried powdered Golden Seal root and Oregon Grape Root. Put these herbs in a cup of water and bring to a boil. Simmer for 15 minutes. Let it cool. Strain and utilize it as a face wash.

    Liver Illness: Prepare a powdered mix of an equivalent quantity of Red clover, Fennel, Cleavers, Dandelion, Oregon grape root, Burdock root, Chickweed, and Parsley root. Boil 1 to 2 cups of water. Add one teaspoon of the powdered mix in. Enable it to get cool down. Consume 1 cup of tea once a day before breakfast.

    Culinary Uses

    • Little purplish-black fruits, which are quite tart and contain big seeds, are consisted of in smaller sized amounts in the standard diets of Pacific Northwest aboriginal peoples, combined with Salal or another sweeter fruit.
    • They are often utilized to make jelly, alone or mixed with salal.
    • Oregon grape juice can be fermented to make white wine, similar to European barberry wine folk customs, although it requires an unusually high quantity of sugar.
    • Fruit can be taken in raw or cooked.
    • It has an acid taste, but it is rather great raw and is specifically good when added to a porridge or muesli.
    • Fruit can also be dried and kept for later use.
    • Raw flowers can also be utilized to make a lemonade-like drink.
    • Oregon grape makes a fantastic jelly.
    • Attempt developing Oregon grape berry wine or toss some berries into a pie or cobbler.
    • Oregon-grape juice can be fermented to make wine, similar to European barberry wine folk traditions, although it requires an abnormally high amount of sugar. [4]

    Determining Mahonia

    We have two types of Mahonia in our region– tall Oregon grape (M. aquifolia) grows to 8 feet high and dwarf or dull Oregon grape (M. nervosa) grows simply a couple of feet high. Both are erect stiff branched shrubs with substance leaves that look like holly in leatherlike look and prickliness. The leaves are a glossy deep green on top and silvery beneath. Tall Oregon grape has 5-7 brochures per leaf while dull Oregon grape (it’s anything however dull) has 9-19 leaflets. Both plants have rhizomous roots with a brilliant yellow pigment in the inner bark. Brilliant yellow flowers have 6 petals and are arranged in clusters. Appropriately– Oregon grape is Oregon’s state flower.

    Where it Grows: Oregon grapes are northwest perennials that are treasured for their beauty and robustness. They are commonly planted in city landscapes, parks, and along roadsides. Dwarf Oregon grape chooses dubious areas– frequently second story Douglas fir forest. It forms a ground cover. Tall Oregon grape prefers sunnier places in low to middle elevations. It grows in clusters in dry fields and forest margins.

    When and How to Harvest: Deep blue berries are usually ripe from July to September. Tall Oregon grape berries are far more prolific and grow on stems that are easy to eliminate. I select them as a cluster then process private berries at home.

    As a beginning herbalist I was instructed to collect dwarf Oregon grape roots to harvest the powerful medical yellow bark. This was a laborious procedure since I had to dig the entire plant, wash the roots, and after that carefully scrape the outer bark with a knife so that all of the yellow bark was eliminated from the inner white root. I felt guilty eliminating the plant. Years later, Skokomish Senior Bruce Miller showed me how to peel the bark off the large stems of high Oregon grape. He took me to a plant that he had been gathering from for over 30 years and it did not look damaged by the taking! I enthusiastically cut a few 8-foot stems and quickly stripped them– no digging or cleaning needed. Out of interest, I checked the berberine content (an alkaloid that has powerful medicinal homes) on both the dwarf Oregon grape root and the high Oregon grape stem bark with thin layer chromatography. The stem was slightly greater in berberine. Needless to say, I have actually never gone back to digging the roots!

    Strip the bark with a sharp knife when it is fresh. As it dries it gets surprisingly hard to scrape. If you are digging the roots and roots, wash to get rid of dirt, then strip larger ones with a knife. Entire smaller roots can be cut with pruning sheers or scissors. Dry in baskets or paper bags. They will last 1-2 years.

    Mahonia Jelly

    This is a standard jelly dish with liquid pectin. I have made it 3 years in a row and the recipe has held up consistently. Make certain to collect the berries when they are deep blue. They will still be tart, but less so than unripe berries.

    • Step 6 cups of cleaned up, washed Oregon grape berries.
    • Location berries in a cooking pot with 2 cups of water.
    • Give a boil, then refuse and simmer for 15 minutes. Use a big spoon to mash the berries against the side of the pot so the juice is released.
    • Place a Foley food mill over another cooking pot. In 1 to 2 cup increments, turn the berries and juice through the food mill so that the seeds are separated. Eliminate the seeds from the mill prior to straining another batch.
    • As soon as ended up, measure your juice/pulp. It ought to yield about 3 cups. If you have less you can include a little water to bring your volume to 3 cups.
    • Location a pot on the stovetop, add the juice, 1 ounce of pectin (about 1/2 of a liquid bundle) and the juice of 1/2 lemon. Stir well and after that turn onto high heat, stirring consistently.
    • As soon as the mixture is boiling, quickly add 3 cups of sugar, return to a rolling boil and boil for precisely 1 minute. Remove from the burner.
    • Location the jelly in tidy hot canning jars, clean the top of the jars to get rid of any spillage, cover with lids, and can in a water bath for 10 minutes. If any covers do not seal, cool the container of jelly and usage within 3 weeks.

    Mahonia/Oregon Grape Lavender Jelly (Low sugar)

    I tried this dish for the first time this year and I like it much better than the high sugar jelly. I utilized Pomona’s Universal pectin. The lavender was a last-minute motivation given that I spied it drying near by– the tastes compliment each other well! Toast with Oregon grape jelly and an egg has been my daughter Lucy’s “out of this world breakfast.”

    • Measure 8 cups of clean, rinsed Oregon grape berries.
    • Place berries in a cooking pot with 2 cups of water.
    • Give a boil, deny and simmer for 15 minutes as explained above.
    • Process berries and juice through a Foley Food Mill as explained above.
    • Step 4 cups of the juice/pulp.
    • Place the juice in a cooking pot, stir in 2 teaspoon of calcium water (consisted of in Pomona’s pectin, and 2 tablespoons of fresh or dried lavender.
    • Step 2 cups of honey and stir in 2 teaspoons of pectin.
    • Bring the juice to a boil.
    • Add the honey/pectin and stir strongly for 1-2 minutes up until the mixture returns to a boil. Remove from heat.
    • Fill canning containers, seal, and can for 10 minutes as described above.
    • Oregon grape berries are a traditional food for Northwest Native Individuals and were typically combined with other sweeter berries like salal and made into pemmican cakes. A couple of years ago I found out about 2 hikers who got lost in the woods for over a week. The only edible food they understood was Oregon grape berries and they consumed them in large quantities. They came back in great shape.

    Mahonia/ Oregon Grape Medication

    Oregon grape has a long history of use. Native people have actually valued it as a medicine wherever it grows. Numerous tribes in the Pacific Northwest have used it as a blood tonic, an antimicrobial, a laxative, and to reduce stomach irritation.

    Oregon grape has numerous intricate substances however the one that herbalists concentrate on the most is a brilliant yellow alkaloid called berberine. berberine is a strong antimicrobial and liver stimulant that is found in other plants consisting of barberry, coptis, greater celandine, and goldenseal. Although these plants are often utilized interchangeably, bear in mind that each plant is more than the amount of its parts. Oregon grape has similar properties to the threatened and excessive used goldenseal plant, but there are essential healing differences, including the fact that Oregon grape is not as tightening to inflamed tissue.

    Oregon grape can be used both externally and internally to fight bacterial infections. For wounds, you can either make a strong tea and soak the wound in it, or you can fill a dry sterile bandage or very clean cloth in the tea, then protect it on the injury. You can also power the dried root and spray it straight on wounds. I have actually heard numerous herbalists report that they utilized Oregon grape successfully for digestive tract infections. It specifies against salmonella, shigellosis and amebic dysentery.

    The bitterness of Oregon grape is valuable in itself. As bitter compounds touch your taste buds on your tongue they send out messages to your brain– causing a boost in many digestion secretions consisting of saliva, hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen and hormones that stimulate the gall bladder and pancreas. This, naturally, leads to better and more effective digestion down the gastrointestinal system. Try Oregon grape tea or tincture prior to meals as a bitter tonic to prevent indigestion. Since it stimulates digestion juices, it also functions as a laxative.

    Oregon grape promotes liver function. My esteemed organic instructor, Michael Moore, sought out physiological or constitutional patterns in individuals, then utilized plants to bring them back into a state of balance. Numerous Americans have a pattern of liver deficiency. The liver is accountable for numerous functions including:.

    • Breaking down metabolites and toxins.
    • Producing bile, which assists break down fats and proteins, and serves as a laxative.
    • Dealing with other organs to stabilize blood glucose.
    • Making high quality foundation to support the skin and other tissue. [5]

    Oregon grape Fascinating Facts

    Also referred as Mahonia, Oregon grape is the state flower of Oregon. The scientific or botanic name aquifolium mentions that the leaves of the plant are holly-like. They are derived from the Roman word aquifolium which indicates prickly leaved. [6]

    What Are the Adverse Effects of Oregon Grape?

    Oregon grape is considered usually safe. It has no toxicity.5 However, several adverse effects have been reported from making use of Oregon grape. Along with these adverse effects, just like all natural supplements, is the possibility of an allergic reaction.

    Common Side Effects

    The adverse effects identified in the Oregon grape and berberine are common negative effects, consisting of:.

    • Diarrhea
    • Irregularity
    • Gas
    • Stomach upset
    • Itching, burning, and irritation (at the site of topical cream administration)
    • Rash (especially with topical use)

    Extreme Adverse Effects

    There are few recorded extreme negative effects of Oregon grape. An allergy to Oregon grape’s constituents might cause anaphylaxis, a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction.

    Consuming too much Oregon grape might have extreme results. The constituent berberine might have extreme effects if taken in high amounts. There exists the possibility of jaundice if berberine is taken in high doses. Since Oregon grape consists of berberine, taking high dosages of Oregon grape might have the very same results.

    Dosage: Just How Much Mahonia/Oregon Grape Should I Take?

    Always speak with a doctor prior to taking a supplement to guarantee that the supplement and dose are appropriate for your individual needs.

    Couple of clinical research studies about the correct dosage of Oregon grape have actually been completed. There is insufficient information to identify a reliable, safe dose.

    There are still clinical research studies on the oral intake of berberine, not specifically Oregon grape.

    berberine is an active constituent in Oregon grape. A dose of 0.2 – 1.0 grams each day of berberine in either tablet or capsule types has been utilized for as much as three months.

    What Takes place If I Take Too Much Mahonia/Oregon Grape?

    Due to an absence of medical data, a reliable, safe dosage of Oregon grape has actually not been determined. There is no information on upper limits particular to Oregon grape.

    There is research relating to extreme use of berberine, a component within the Oregon grape. These research studies remain in the early stages, only having been performed in animals. The known effective dose is not known for human beings.

    It is best to talk to your healthcare provider about a dosage of Oregon grape that would be best for you and your specific needs. [7]

    Interactions

    Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) Interaction Rating: Moderate Beware with this combination.Talk with your health service provider.

    The body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) to eliminate it. Oregon grape might reduce how fast the body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). This might cause there to be too much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) in the body and possibly cause adverse effects.

    Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) Interaction Ranking: Moderate Beware with this combination.Talk with your health company.

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Oregon grape might reduce how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Oregon grape in addition to some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and negative effects of some medications. Prior to taking Oregon grape, talk with your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are altered by the liver.

    Some medications changed by the liver consist of cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafil (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion), and numerous others. [8]

    Unique Precautions and Cautions

    When taken by mouth: Mahonia is LIKELY SAFE when taken in the amounts discovered in foods. There isn’t sufficient trusted details to know if Mahonia is safe to utilize in medical amounts or what the side effects might be.

    When applied to the skin: Mahonia cream is perhaps SAFE for the majority of people when applied straight to the skin. It can trigger some side effects such as itching, burning, irritation, and allergic reactions. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It’s LIKELY UNSAFE to utilize Oregon grape if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Among the chemicals in Oregon grape, berberine, may cross the placenta and might trigger damage to the fetus. It can also be moved to the infant through breast milk. Brain damage (kernicterus) has actually been reported in newborn infants exposed to berberine.

    Children: It’s LIKELY UNSAFE to give Mahonia to babies. The berberine in Mahonia can cause mental retardation (kernicterus) in babies, especially early babies who have jaundice. Jaundice is a condition in which there is yellowing of the eyes and skin caused by bile pigments in the blood. There isn’t adequate dependable information to know if Oregon grape is safe to provide to older children. Remain on the safe side and avoid usage.

    Diabetes: Mahonia can lower blood glucose. Mahonia may cause blood sugar level to end up being too low in people who are likewise taking antidiabetes medications. Usage with caution.

    Low high blood pressure: Mahonia can lower blood pressure. Mahonia might increase the risk of high blood pressure ending up being too low in individuals who currently have low blood pressure. Use with caution. [9]

    The bottom line

    Oregon grape is a flowering plant that has been utilized for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Scientific research study recommends it relieves signs of psoriasis and other skin conditions, however it may likewise increase your mood, offer antibacterial activity, and reduce IBS and heartburn.

    Though normally safe, Oregon grape ought to not be taken by kids or pregnant or breastfeeding women.

    If you have an interest in attempting this herb, it may be best to begin by utilizing a topical treatment containing it, such as a skin lotion, and seek advice from a physician prior to taking supplements or other oral solutions. [10]

    References

    1. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mahonia
    2. http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/2011/johnson_eri6/reproduction.htm
    3. http://www.misin.msu.edu/facts/detail/?id=224
    4. https://rxharun.com/mahonia-aquifolium-nutritional-value-health-benefits/#gsc.tab=0
    5. http://wildfoodsandmedicines.com/oregon-grape/
    6. https://www.fruitsinfo.com/oregon-grape.php
    7. https://www.verywellhealth.com/oregon-grape-benefits-4590368#toc-dosage-how-much-oregon-grape-should-i-take
    8. https://www.rxlist.com/oregon_grape/supplements.htm#Interactions
    9. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-493/oregon-grape
    10. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/oregon-grape#bottom-line

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