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A large oval tasty however foul-smelling fruit with an irritable skin. A southeast asian tree (durio zibethinus) of the silk-cotton household that bears durians. [1]

Overview

Durian is an evergreen, tropical tree found in southeast asia. The distinct fruit has a spiky outer covering and gives off rotten eggs. The fruit, bark, roots, and leaves are utilized to make medicine.

Individuals use durian for fever, hypertension, liver illness, and numerous other conditions, but there is no good scientific proof to support these uses. [2]

History

Durian was thought to be from the region of borneo and sumatra, they grew wild along the malay peninsula, and was commonly cultivated in a broad region from india to brand-new guinea.

400 years back, it was traded across present-day myanmar, and was actively cultivated specifically in thailand and south vietnam.

The earliest recognized european reference to the durian is the record of niccolò da conti, who travelled to southeastern asia in the 15th century. The portuguese doctor garcia de orta likewise explained durians in a post that he published in 1563.

In 1741, the german botanist georg eberhard rumphius published a book, which supply in-depth and precise account of durians for over a century.

Throughout the early stages of its taxonomical study, there was some confusion in between durian and the soursop, for both of these species had tough green fruit. It is likewise fascinating to note the malay name for the soursop is durian belanda, indicating dutch durian.

In the 18th century, johann anton weinmann thought about the durian to belong to castaneae as its fruit resembled the horse chestnut.

Durian had actually likewise been planted in the americas but confined to botanical gardens. The first seedlings were sent from the royal botanic gardens, kew, to auguste saint-arroman of dominica in 1884.

In southeastern asia, the durian has been cultivated for centuries at the village level, probably given that the late 18th century, and commercially given that the mid-20th century.

In my tropic isle, australian author and biologist edmund james banfield informs how, in the early 20th century, a friend in singapore sent him a durian seed, which he planted and cared for on his tropical island off the north coast of queensland.

Because the early 1990s, the domestic and global need for durian in the association of southeast asian countries (asean) region has increased considerably, partially due to the increasing affluence of asia. [3]

Description

The durian tree, reaching 90 to 130 feet (27-40 m) in height in tropical forests, is normally set up with brief, straight, rough, peeling trunk to 4 ft (1.2 m) in diameter, and irregular thick or open crown of rough branches, and thin branchlets covered with coppery or gray scales when young. The evergreen, alternate leaves are oblong-lance-olate, or elliptic-obovate, rounded at the base, abruptly pointed at the apex; leathery, dark-green and shiny above, silvery or pale-yellow, and densely covered with gray or reddish-brown, hairy scales on the underside; 2 1/2 to 10 in (6.25-25 cm) long, 1 to 3 1/2 in (2.5-9 cm) wide. Malodorous, whitish to golden-brown, 3-petalled flowers, 2 to 3 in (5-7.5 cm) wide, with 5-lobed, bell-shaped calyx, are borne in pendant clusters of 3 to 30 straight from the old, thick branches or trunk.

The fruits are ovoid or ovoid-oblong to almost round, 6 to 12 in (15-30 cm) long, 5 to 6 in (12.5-15 cm) broad, and up to 18 pounds (8 kg) in weight. The yellow or yellowish-green skin is thick, hard, semi-woody, and largely set with stout, sharply pointed spinal columns, 3- to 7-sided at the base. Managing without gloves can be agonizing. Inside there are 5 compartments containing the creamy-white, yellowish, pinkish or orange-colored flesh and 1 to 7 chestnut-like seeds, 3/4 to 2 1/4 in (2-6 cm) long with shiny, red-brown seed coat. In the very best fruits, most seeds are abortive. There are some odor-free cultivars however the flesh of the common durian has an effective smell which reminded the plant explorer, otis w. Barrett, of combined cheese, decayed onion and turpentine, or “garlic, limburger cheese and some spicy sort of resin” however he said that after eating a little the pulp “the odor is scarcely seen.” the nature of the flesh is more complex-in the words of alfred russel wallace (much-quoted), it is “a rich custard highly flavored with almonds … But there are periodic wafts of flavor that call to mind cream cheese, onion-sauce, sherry white wine and other incongruous meals. Then there is an abundant glutinous smoothness in the pulp which absolutely nothing else possesses, however which adds to its delicacy. It is neither acid, nor sweet, nor juicy; yet it desires none of these qualities, for it remains in itself best. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you consume of it the less you feel likely to stop.”. Barrett described the flavor as “triplex in effect, first a strong fragrant taste, followed by a scrumptious sweet flavor, then a strange resinous or balsam-like taste of beautiful but relentless savor.” an american chemist operating at the u.s. Rubber plantations in sumatra in modem times, was at very first unwilling to attempt eating durian, was finally encouraged and became enthusiastic, stating it to be “definitely tasty”, something like “a mixture of ice cream, onions, spices, and bananas, all mixed together.”.

Some fruits split into 5 segments, others do not divided, however all fall to the ground when fully grown. [4]

Taxonomy

Durio sensu lato has 30 recognized species. Durio sensu stricto makes up 24 of these species. The 6 additional types consisted of in durio s.l. Are now considered by some to comprise their own genus, boschia. Durio s.s. And boschia have indistinguishable vegetative qualities and numerous shared flower attributes. The crucial distinction between the two is that anther locules open by apical pores in boschia and by longitudinal slits in durio s.s. These 2 genera type a clade that is sis to another.

Genus in the people durioneae, cullenia. These three genera together form a clade that is characterised by highly modified (mono- and polythecate, rather than bithecate) anthers.

The genus durio is positioned by some taxonomists in the family bombacaceae, or by others in a broadly defined malvaceae that includes bombacaceae, and by others in a smaller sized household of simply 7 genera durionaceae.

Durio is often consisted of in bombacaceae because of the existence of monothecate anthers, instead of the bithecate anthers common to the remainder of the mallows (and angiosperms, in general). Nevertheless, the first research studies to analyze mallow phylogeny using molecular data discovered that the tribe durioneae must be put in the subfamily helicteroideae of a broadened malvaceae. The authors of these research studies hypothesise that monothecate anthers have probably progressed convergently in durioneae and in the malvatheca clade (making up malvaceae s.l. Subfamilies malvoideae and bombacoideae).

A draft genome analysis of durian indicates it has about 46,000 coding and non-coding genes, among which a class called methionine gamma-lyases– which control the odour of organosulfur substances– might be primarily responsible for the distinct durian smell. Genome analysis likewise showed that the closest plant relative of durian is cotton. [4]

Pharmacology

Durio zibethnus is generally distributed in southeast asia. Traditional chinese medicine thinks that durian shells have the effects of clearing heat and purging fire, nourishing yin and hydrating dryness. For that reason, it is frequently used as a pharmaceutic food in the chinese folk to help treating diseases. At present, the chemical constituents isolated from durian shell include phenolic acids, phenolic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, triterpenes, basic glycosides and other compounds. Modern medicinal studies reveal that durian shell has lots of medicinal activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, guideline of glucose and lipid metabolism. The chemical structure and pharmacological results of durian shells are summarized in order to offer recommendations for the additional research and application of durian shell. [5]

Varieties

Much variation occurs in seedlings. There are over 300 named ranges of durian in thailand. Just a couple of these are in industrial cultivation. In malaysia, 100 types are graded for size and quality. In peninsular malaya, there are 44 clones with little distinctions in time and degree of blooming, flower and fruit morphology, performance and edible quality. [6]

One of the most healthy fruits

Durian is extremely high in nutrients compared to most other fruits.

One cup (243 grams) of pulp provides:.

  • Calories: 357
  • Fat: 13 grams
  • Carbs: 66 grams
  • Fiber: 9 grams
  • Protein: 4 grams
  • Vitamin c: 80% of the day-to-day worth (dv)
  • Thiamine: 61% of the dv
  • Manganese: 39% of the dv
  • Vitamin b6: 38% of the dv
  • Potassium: 30% of the dv
  • Riboflavin: 29% of the dv
  • Copper: 25% of the dv
  • Folate: 22% of the dv
  • Magnesium: 18% of the dv
  • Niacin: 13% of the dv

This nutrient profile makes durian among the most nutritious fruits worldwide.

It’s likewise rich in healthy plant compounds, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, polyphenols, and flavonoids. A lot of these function as antioxidants.

Summary

Durian is a really nutritious fruit that’s rich in fiber, b vitamins, Vitamin c, and different healthy plant compounds. [7]

Durian fruit advantages for health

Improves digestion health

The dietary fibre in durian assists in alleviating bowel movement. This, in turn, assists prevent constipation and enhances digestion health. The thiamin in the fruit might improve cravings and basic well-being in the senior. The fibre in durian fruit likewise promotes peristaltic movement alleviating the digestive process in the intestines. It also helps deal with issues like bloating, excess flatulence, heartburn.

Prevents cardiovascular diseases

The organosulfur in durians might manage the inflammatory enzymes and minimize the risk of heart diseases. Many research studies have found that consumption of fruits that are abundant in soluble dietary fiber may help decrease the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ldl-c) and minimize the threat of coronary heart problem. Durian fruit is a heart-friendly food with high fiber content.

Maintains blood sugar levels

The manganese in durian may assist in the maintenance of blood sugar level levels. The consumption of durian also improves the insulin response in patients with diabetes. The anti-oxidants in durian likewise help in reducing oxidative stress, which can otherwise intensify diabetes signs. Durian is a fantastic fruit, being a healthy food with a low glycemic index (gi). For this reason, the fruit would not cause blood sugar level spikes.

Manages blood pressure levels

Durian is a great source of Potassium. Research reveals that increasing Potassium consumption can decrease blood pressure levels. The Potassium in the fruit likewise works as a vasodilator. It can help keep the balance in between fluid and salt in the body’s cells. The mineral might help reduce tension on the capillary and decrease the threat of heart attack or stroke.

Helps in weight gain

Eating durian fruit on a regular and moderate basis is extremely useful for the people who want to gain some additional pounds without the inclusion of false calories in their diet plan. This advantage of durian fruit is generally because of the high calories in them. Eating 100 grams of durian supplies around 147 calories of energy. It is likewise a good source of carbs that release energy into the system at a steady rate and supplies us with the energy needed for our daily activity. It is rich in healthy fats which supports our health and likewise aids in weight gain.

Bolsters resistance and metabolic process

Our immune system is the defence mechanism of our body that plays an essential function in keeping us healthy. It is the defence mechanism of our body that avoids disease-causing microbes such as germs, infection, and fungi, etc. From entering our body and make us ill. It is essential to increase the body immune system and durian fruit can help in doing the exact same. Consuming durian fruit on a routine and moderate basis is very helpful for strengthening our body immune system. This benefit of durian fruit is mainly because of the existence of Vitamin c.

Decreases cancer risk

Durians are said to have antioxidant residential or commercial properties that may help reduce cancer risk. The fruit includes polyphenols that hinder cancer development and even kill cancer cells. Free radicals are understood to damage healthy cells and trigger the spread of cancer. Given that the antioxidants of durians fight totally free radicals, they may likewise assist in reducing cancer danger.

Reinforces bones and joints

Durian fruits are abundant in calcium, Potassium and Magnesium. These minerals add to bone health by increasing bone density, improving joint flexibility and strengthening the tensile strength of collagen fibers. Regular intake of durian fruit in determined amounts with diet plan promotes bone mineral density in males and females.

Treatments anemia

Durian is an abundant source of iron and folate. Studies link iron and folate shortage to anemia. Folate, if not present in adequate quantities, could reduce the number of red blood cells produced. This, in turn, can set off anemia. Other minerals in durian also activate the production of red blood cells in the body, hence aiding in the transportation of nutrients and fluids to all organs in the system.

Treats sleeping disorders

Eating durian fruit might deal with insomnia. This advantage of durian fruit is because of the existence of tryptophan in it. tryptophan is a vital amino acid that converts to serotonin in our brain and causes a sensation of relaxation and happiness. It also assists in releasing melatonin in our bloodstream. melatonin is a hormonal agent that makes us feel tired and drowsy and thus helps in curing sleeping disorders. Furthermore, other substances such as vitamin b complex, calcium, and iron, and so on. Likewise play a significant function in ensuring a good night’s sleep.

Natural aphrodisiac

Durians are an aphrodisiac, being useful for improving sexual health. It boosts sex drive and rejuvenates the sexual life. This benefit of durian is generally because of the nutritional substances like vitamin b6 and Potassium in it. Potassium is a natural vasodilator that relaxes capillary and improves blood circulation. It also assists with impotence. Vitamin b6 likewise plays a considerable function in enhancing blood circulation and hence promotes sexual health.

Anti-depressant homes

Eating durian fruit on a routine and moderate basis is very beneficial for combating versus the depression. This benefit of durian fruit is mainly because of the presence of vitamin b6 in it. Vitamin b6 is an important nutrient that increases the production of serotonin in our system. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter produced by the nerve cells and is mostly discovered in the gastrointestinal system as well as blood platelets and throughout the main nervous system. It performs many functions such as lowers depression, reduces anxiety, therefore boosting state of mind and boosting memory and concentration. [8]

Durian benefits for skin

Following are the major appeal benefits of durian for the skin.

Decrease signs of premature aging

The rich nutritious profile of durian assists in maintaining our skin health.

Antioxidants like Vitamin c, vitamin a, and other relevant substances in durian safeguard the skin cells from totally free extreme damage and minimize great lines, wrinkles, age spots, dark spots, skin acnes, and other signs of premature aging.

Vitamin c boosts collagen production.

Collagen is an amino acid that keeps skin flexibility and prevents saggy skin and wrinkles.

Zinc, vitamin e, and other nutrients in durian likewise help in keeping skin healthy.

Deals with skin pigmentation

Antioxidants in durian protect our skin from complimentary radical damage and highlight natural radiance of the skin.

It improves collagen production, preserve skin flexibility and increase skin smoothness.

Vitamins and minerals in durian fruit offer nutrition to skin and improve complexion.

Reduce skin issues

Durian minimize the threat of skin problems like acne and pimples.

Acne is a typical skin condition that mainly happens due to the clogging up of skin pores by toxic substances, pollutants, and other pollutants.

The cleansing compounds like Vitamin c and dietary fibers in durian get rid of toxic substances, contaminants and other impurities from our system.

When there are fewer toxins, they are less likely to collect in the skin pores and lower the danger of skin problems like acne and pimples.

Dietary fibers regulate the secretion of excess oil from the sebaceous gland of the skin and prevent the worsening of acne.

Security from damaging uv rays of sun

Extended exposure to the damaging uv rays of the sun may damage our skin and cause wrinkles, leathery skin, liver areas, and other signs of premature aging.

Uv rays can harm our skin and increase the danger of infections and cancers.

Anti-oxidants in durian safeguards our skin from oxidative tension caused by uv rays of the sun, and decrease the risk of infections and cancers.

Keeps our skin hydrated

Durian contain about 65 percent water and assistance in staying hydrated.

Remaining hydrated is necessary for our skin health as water invigorates our skin, keeps it moisturized, increase skin softness and smoothness.

It prevents dryness and dullness of the skin.

And, durians are abundant in minerals and vitamins that nurture our skin and offer additional advantages to the skin.

Maintains skin health

Durian keeps our skin health due to the abundance of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, and dietary fibers, and so on.

Antioxidants safeguard our skin from complimentary extreme damage and keep indications of early aging such as fine lines, wrinkles, age spots, and so on at bay.

Dietary fibers in durian prevent our skin pores from getting congested by toxins and pollutants, and decrease threat of skin issues like acne and pimples.

Durian draws out the natural glow of the skin, and make our skin soft, supple, and glowing.

It assists in getting rid of dead skin cells and encourages the growth of brand-new skin cells.

Other nutrients like b vitamins and Zinc play an important role in keeping skin healthy.

Durian benefits for hair

Some significant beauty benefits of durian for hair are as follows.

Promotes hair development

Durian are good for our hair and scalp, and motivates the development of brand-new hair.

Antioxidants like Vitamin c, vitamin e, and other appropriate compounds in durian protect our hair and scalp from totally free radical damage.

This decrease early greying of hair, hair fall, split ends, and hair dryness.

Vitamins and minerals in durian supply nutrition to our hair and reinforce them.

Zinc and b vitamins in durian encourages the growth of new hair.

Decreases hair loss

Durian make our hair more powerful and reduce danger of hair fall.

Minerals and vitamins in durian nurtures our hair follicles and make them strong and glossy.

Antioxidants secure the hair from ill effects of oxidative tension.

When our hair is strong, danger of hair problems like hair fall, hair dryness lowers by a considerable level.

iron, Zinc and b vitamins in durian plays a crucial function in reducing hair fall danger.

Make our hair strong and shiny

Minerals and vitamins in durian provide nourishment to our hair, and strengthen them.

Antioxidants like Vitamin c and other appropriate compounds safeguard the hair and scalp from complimentary extreme damage, and decrease signs of premature greying of hair.

Durian make our hair strong and shiny, and reduce danger of hair issues.

Treats scalp acne

Acne is a typical skin problem that impact millions and are mainly caused by the accumulation of toxic substances, contaminants and other impurities within the skin pores.

It can likewise take place at the scalp level and is known as scalp acne.

Durian helps in dealing with skin issues like acne and scalp acne as it contains cleansing substances like dietary fibers and Vitamin c.

These compounds get rid of toxins, contaminants, and other pollutants from our system.

When there are fewer toxic substances, they are less likely to accumulate in skin pores and lower danger of skin issues such as acne and scalp acne.

Dietary fiber manages the secretion of excess oil from the skin pores, and avoids the scalp acne from getting worse.

Minimizing dandruff risk

Durian enhance our scalp health and reduce danger of scalp issues such as dandruff.

It offers nutrition to our hair and scalp, and keep them healthy.

The anti-microbial properties of durian safeguard the scalp from fungal infections, and reduce threat of scalp concerns.

Durian minimize scalp dryness, a common cause of dandruff. [9]

Durian ice cream dessert

Ingredients

  • 4 to 6 sectors fresh, frozen, or canned durian, more as needed
  • 2 large egg yolks
  • 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
  • 3 tablespoons granulated sugar, or to taste
  • 1 cup entire milk
  • 1 cup light cream

Actions to make it

  1. Collect the active ingredients.
  2. Remove the seeds from the durian and dig the flesh into an electric mixer. On low to medium speed, blend the flesh into a paste.
  3. Press the paste through a great sieve. You must have 4 ounces of durian paste at this point. (if not, use more durian.) Chill the durian paste up until all set to use.
  4. In a medium bowl, whisk the egg yolks with the vanilla essence and sugar.
  5. Bring the milk and cream to a near boil over medium heat and after that reduce the heat to low. Gather the egg mix, stirring constantly to thicken. Make sure not to let the mix boil, or the milk will curdle. (if you see bubbles forming at the edge of the pan, take it off the stove).
  6. As soon as a thick consistency, remove from the heat and permit the custard to cool. Chill the custard in the freezer for 30 to 45 minutes, till it is just beginning to solidify.
  7. Slowly stir in the durian paste, 1 tablespoon at a time, until totally integrated.
  8. Either continue freezing, stirring a number of times throughout, or end up the ice cream in an ice cream maker. [10]

Negative effects of consuming durian fruit in excess

Too much dietary fiber is bad for stomach

Regular and moderate intake of durian fruit is very helpful for our stomach and improves our digestive health. This advantage of durian is mainly due to the existence of dietary fibers in them. The dietary fibers present in the durian function as a natural laxative which suggests it improves our bowel movement, and guarantee smooth elimination of stool from our system.

This alleviates irregularity and also supplies remedy for other gastrointestinal problems such as abdominal discomfort, irritable bowel syndrome, gas and bloating, etc.even though dietary fibers are good for our stomach, it is suggested to be on the safe side and consume the fruit in moderation.

A lot of anti-oxidants are bad

Durian is an exceptional source of lots of antioxidants such as Vitamin c, vitamin a and other antioxidantal substances like phytonutrients, polyphenols, and flavonoids, and so on.

These antioxidants and the pertinent substances present in the durian fight with the free radicals in our body, stabilize them and prevents them from triggering oxidative damage to our cells and tissues. This lowers the risk of different cancers.

Boosts the danger of hypoglycemia

Eating durian fruit on a routine and moderate basis is extremely helpful for individuals with diabetes and for those who are at the risk of establishing diabetes. This benefit of durian fruit is mainly because of its low glycemic index. Glycemic index is a scale from 0 to 100 that figures out the rate at which a specific food product will launch sugar into the bloodstream.

Being a low glycemic index fruit implies durian releases sugar into the bloodstream at a sluggish rate and avoids an unexpected spike in the blood glucose level and hence assists in handling diabetes. Additionaly, the dietary fibers present in the durian minimize the rate at which sugar gets absorbed by the blood stream and hence assists in keeping blood glucose under control.

Might trigger allergic reactions

Durian fruit is an outstanding source of numerous nutrients like vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, phytonutrients, polyphenols, and dietary fibers, etc. Existence of these compounds makes durian very advantageous for us as they offer a variety of health advantages and along with appeal benefits for our skin and hair.

Nevertheless, not everybody can enjoy these benefits. It has actually been discovered that taking in durians might establish allergies in some people and they must avoid the fruit. Some common allergic symptoms that might develop are hives, nasal blockage, runny nose, throat discomfort, diarrhea, and throwing up.

Consuming a lot of durians during pregnancy

Pregnancy is an important stage in the life of a woman. At this phase, it is very important for her to make sure that she is having a well balanced diet plan filled with essential nutrients like minerals and vitamins, etc. This is since what a mom eats not only determines her health however likewise the health and health of the fetus developing in her womb.

Durian is an outstanding fruit that offers many nutrients like minerals and vitamins and along with other substances such as anti-oxidants, phytonutrients, polyphenols, and dietary fibers, etc. That assists in maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The anti-oxidants such as Vitamin c and other relevant substances like phytonutrients and polyphenols etc. Safeguards the uterus and the fetus developing in it from the oxidative damage caused by the totally free radicals in our body. [11]

Dose and types

Please be reminded that the dosages and kinds listed below are not indicated to change the advice given by your doctor:.

Durian has no medically-accepted dosage, so it’s best to consume it in small amounts. You can delight in the fruit fresh or frozen. [12]

Interactions

Alcohol interaction score: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

The body breaks down the alcohol to eliminate it. Durian might reduce how fast the body breaks down alcohol. Consuming alcohol and taking durian might trigger adverse effects such as a pounding headache, throwing up, flushing, and other unpleasant responses. Do not drink any alcohol if you are taking durian.

Medications for diabetes (antidiabetes drugs) interaction ranking: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Durian may increase blood sugar level. Diabetes medications are utilized to lower blood sugar level. Taking durian together with diabetes medications may hinder the results of diabetes medications. Display your blood sugar level closely. The dosage of your diabetes medication might require to be altered.

Some medications used for diabetes consist of glimepiride (amaryl), glyburide (diabeta, glynase prestab, micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (actos), rosiglitazone (avandia), chlorpropamide (diabinese), glipizide (glucotrol), tolbutamide (orinase), and others.

Prior to taking durian, talk with your healthcare professional if you take these or any other medications. [13]

Conclusions

These pesticide levels discovered in the fruits are unlikely to hurt the customers therefore it is safe to consume watermelon and durian in thailand. While our results discovered negligible risk associated with pesticide direct exposure from consuming these typical tropical fruits, unique safety measures need to be thought about to decrease total exposure to these damaging pesticides from various foods. [14]

Recommendations

  1. Https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/durian
  2. Https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1458/durian
  3. Https://durians.com/pages/the-history-of-durian
  4. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/durian#taxonomy
  5. Https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s1674638421001076#s0070
  6. Https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/durian_ars.html#varieties
  7. Https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/durian-fruit#nutrition
  8. Https://www.netmeds.com/health-library/post/durian-fruit-health-benefits-nutrition-uses-for-skin-and-hair-recipes-side-effects
  9. Https://goodhealthall.com/durian-fruit-health-beauty-benefits/
  10. Https://www.thespruceeats.com/durian-ice-cream-694424
  11. Https://www.lifeberrys.com/healthy-living/5-side-effects-of-eating-durian-fruit-in-excess-180459.html
  12. Https://hellodoctor.com.ph/herbals-and-alternatives/herbal-medicines/benefits-durian-fruit-leaves/
  13. Https://www.rxlist.com/durian/supplements.htm#interactions
  14. Https://environhealthprevmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1007/s12199-015-0452-8