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Black Cohosh

    A big perennial herb (Cimicifuga racemosa synonym Actaea racemosa) belonging to moist forests of the eastern U.S. and Canada that has ternately compound leaves and clusters of small white flowers. [1]


    Black cohosh (Actaea racemose) is a forest herb belonging to North America. The root is used as medicine and is frequently used for estrogen-related conditions.

    In some parts of the body, black cohosh may increase the impacts of estrogen. In other parts of the body, black cohosh might reduce the effects of estrogen. Black cohosh should not be considered an “herbal estrogen” or a replacement for estrogen.

    Individuals frequently use black cohosh for symptoms of menopause, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), painful menstruation, weak and fragile bones, and numerous other conditions, there is no good scientific proof to support most of these usages.

    Do not puzzle black cohosh with blue cohosh or white cohosh. These are unrelated plants. [2]


    More than two centuries back, Native Americans found that the root of the black cohosh plant (Actaea racemosa, formerly called Cimicifuga racemosa) assisted alleviate menstrual cramps and menopausal signs, such as hot flashes, irritability, state of mind swings, and sleep disturbances. Today, people utilize black cohosh for these very same reasons. In fact, the herb has been widely utilized in Europe for more than 40 years and is authorized in Germany for premenstrual discomfort, agonizing menstruation, and menopausal symptoms. [3]


    The primary active constituent of the black cohosh root is believed to be the terpene glycoside portion, including actein and cimifugoside. The rhizome likewise includes other possibly biologically active compounds, consisting of alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. The healing activity of black cohosh was originally thought to derive from an activation of estrogen receptors; however, more recent studies reveal that although some constituents of the extract bind to at least one subtype of estrogen receptors, this binding produces very little, if any, estrogenic impact, and might selectively block a few of these impacts.

    One early research study reported that treatment with black cohosh produced a decline in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels consistent with an estrogenic result; however, more recent research studies have revealed no effect on levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormonal agent (FSH), or prolactin. It remains unclear whether black cohosh exerts its effect via estrogen receptors or through another mechanism. [4]

    Use as medicine

    Historical usage

    Native Americans used black cohosh to treat gynecological and other conditions. Following the arrival of European inhabitants in the U.S. who continued making use of black cohosh, the plant appeared in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia under the name “black snakeroot”. In the 19th century, the root was used to treat snakebite, inflamed lungs, and discomfort from childbirth.

    Current use

    Extracts from the underground parts of the plant– the rhizome (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma) and the root (Cimicifugae racemosae radix)– are used medicinally. The roots and roots include numerous saponins (triterpene saponins/triterpene glycosides such as actein) along with cimifugic acids and other phenol carboxylic acids. The active compound makes up the overall extract.

    In most European countries, China, Malaysia, Thailand, Argentina and some other countries, black cohosh items are readily available as natural medical products which have actually been authorized by regulatory authorities guaranteeing trusted pharmaceutical quality, security and effectiveness for the relief of menopausal problems such as hot flushes and extreme sweating. In the U.S., India, and some other nations, black cohosh is used as a dietary supplement marketed mainly to women for treating menopausal symptoms and other gynecological problems. Meta-analyses of modern evidence assistance these claims on menopausal grievances only for items holding a marketing permission for this sign, whereas there is no premium scientific proof to support such usages for other items.

    For licensed herbal medical items made from C. racemosa, some scientific research study evidence shows additional beneficial impacts on sleep disorders connected with hot flushes and excessive sweating attacks.

    An evaluation published by Cochrane in 2012 was rather cautious with previous results and the effectiveness of Cimicifuga preparations for menopausal symptoms. The Cochrane evaluation consisted of and compared preparations of greatly varying qualities (particularly evaluated medical products, products without marketing approval along with dietary supplements); the indications for use also varied. Additionally, research studies were included that were carried out with products from unknown black cohosh varieties. At the same time, a number of released studies were not even thought about or were omitted without justification.

    Exhaustive meta-analyses have proven the effectiveness of Cimicifuga medical items for menopausal signs, in particular those with an isopropanolic extract. An evaluation from 2013 was the very first to include all full publications from 2000 to 2012 and distinguish in between the Cimicifuga preparations by type of extract, status, and indicator. According to this review, only standardized, checked, and authorized medicinal products could supply proof (reasonable phytotherapy) and a positive risk-benefit profile. More recent research studies with an ethanolic extract also showed a favorable impact on medium- and long-lasting menopausal results such as weight gain and metabolic disorders.

    Medicinal items that contain an isopropanolic Cimicifuga extract are likewise appropriate for patients who suffer from menopausal symptoms after breast cancer treatment, the ladies just require to speak to their attending doctor initially. Relapse-free survival is not impaired; if anything, Cimicifuga might promote relapse-free survival.

    Safety and health concerns

    The Herbal Medicinal Product Committee (HMPC) at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has summarized the adverse drug reactions of organic medications made from cimicifuga with pointing out allergic skin responses (urticaria, itching, exanthema), facial oedema and peripheral oedema, and intestinal symptoms (i.e. dyspeptic conditions, diarrhoea).

    Research studies on the long-term security of using organic medications made from black cohosh are readily available. They do not show harmful results on breast tissue, endometrium or breast cancer survivors. On the other hand, such research studies have not been released for dietary supplements made from black cohosh. The majority of black cohosh materials are gathered from the wild. Absence of appropriate authentication and adulteration of industrial preparations by other plant types are risk consider dietary supplements and an important matter of quality assurance in herbal medical products holding a marketing permission. Really high doses of black cohosh might trigger queasiness, lightheadedness, visual effects, a lower heart rate, and increased sweating.

    Worldwide, some 83 cases of liver damage, including liver disease, liver failure, and raised liver enzymes, have been connected with using black cohosh, although a cause-and-effect relationship stays undefined. Millions of ladies have actually taken black cohosh without reporting adverse health effects, and a meta-analysis of medical trials found no proof that black cohosh preparations had unfavorable impacts on liver function. Plan leaflets of phytomedicines made from black cohosh caution that individuals with liver problems ought to not take it, although a 2011 meta-analysis of research study proof recommended this concern might be unfounded. In 2007, the Australian Government alerted that black cohosh may trigger liver damage, although hardly ever, and ought to not be utilized without medical supervision. Other studies concluded that liver damage from use of black cohosh is not likely. The medical picture is similar to an autoimmune liver disease with centrilobular liver cell necrosis, which can be treated with corticosteroids. [5]


    Website selection

    Black cohosh prefers a rich, moist, soil that is high in organic matter. In its natural environment, it is usually discovered in shaded or partially shaded areas, although it will grow in full sun. Black cohosh can be grown effectively in raised beds in the woods (described as “woods cultivated”), in raised beds under an artificial shade structure (described as “shade grown”), or in a low-density, low-input technique simulating how it grows in the wild (referred to as “wild simulated”). Regardless of the cultivation system utilized, it is important to select a site with well-drained, but damp, soil. Black cohosh has been understood to endure more light and soil variations than ginseng or goldenseal, provided there is adequate wetness available. Raised beds are highly recommended, particularly for clay soils or locations that tend to remain damp after a heavy rain. Ensure sufficient compost or other organic material is added to raise the raw material of the soil. Soils with pH of 5 to 6 are ideal for growing black cohosh.

    If an open field is used for production, till the influence of full-sun on plant growth and root quality is figured out, it is suggested that a shade structure be erected. Normally, a wood lath structure or polypropylene shade structure is utilized. Build the structure 7 feet tall or greater with 2 opposite ends open up to the prevailing breeze. For woods cultivated or wild simulated production, pick a website.

    shaded by tall, hardwood trees or a mix of hardwood and evergreen. Search for a site where other forest plants grow such as mayapple, trillium, bloodroot, ginseng, or a native stand of black cohosh.


    Black cohosh is most easily propagated by dividing the roots in spring or fall. Plants can likewise be begun inside from seed or seed can be directly sown into the ground, however root divisions offer a more consistent plant stand and permit a quicker harvestable root. Plus, large quantities of seed are not easily available at this time.

    To propagate by rhizome departments, cut rhizomes into vertical sections, two to three inches in length, ensuring there is at least one bud connected to each piece. There can be up to 15 buds on the root of one black cohosh plant. Any fibrous roots connected to the root pieces ought to stay attached. In a well-prepared bed, three to five feet large, plant the root pieces deep enough to cover the top of the root with two inches of soil (usually suggests digging a four to 6 inch deep hole or trench). Stagger plantings 18 to 24 inches apart, making sure the bud is pointed upright when putting the root pieces in the ground. Cover beds with a minimum of three inches of shredded wood bark mulch or leaf mulch. Include mulch as needed throughout the life of the planting. Roots must be ready to harvest three to 5 years after planting.

    Black cohosh seeds should be exposed to a warm/cold/warm cycle before they will germinate. The easiest method to grow plants from seed is to gather the mature seed in the fall and after that plant in the ground instantly, enabling nature to provide the essential temperature modifications. To do this, collect the seed when the capsules have dried and started to split open and the seed “rattle” inside. Plant them 11⁄2 to 2 inches apart, around 1⁄4 inch deep in shaded, prepared seedbeds. Cover with a one-inch layer of wood bark or leaf mulch and keep moist. Some germination may take place the following spring, but many seeds will not emerge till the second spring. To speed up the germination process and improve the germination rate, grower Richo Cech suggests exposing the seeds to warm temperature level (70 ° F )for 2 weeks, followed by cold temperature (40 ° F )for 3 months.

    If you acquire seed, ask how the seeds have actually been managed, whether they have been stratified (exposed to warm and cold temperatures) and for how long, and what the anticipated germination rate is. Purchased seed typically has a much lower germination rate than seed that has been collected and sown right away. Bought seed frequently takes over 2 years to germinate after sowing. Transplant seedlings into regular planting beds when a 2nd set of true leaves emerges. Roots ought to be ready to gather 4 to six years after seeding.

    Pests and diseases

    Typical diseases found on black cohosh include numerous leaf spots and root rots, including Rhizoctonia. Leaf spots can trigger early defoliation of the plant, decreasing root growth and seed set. To prevent leaf areas, prevent planting in areas with poor air blood circulation and do not crowd plants. Once the disease is recognized, collect and ruin all foliage with the illness signs. If more than a couple of plants are infected, and a positive recognition of the illness has been made, an organic fungicide may be used.

    Rhizoctonia solani caused damping-off in young emerging black cohosh seedlings in a research study done in Canada. Control of Rhizoctonia might be accomplished by planting in well-drained soils and by rotating black cohosh plantings with non-susceptible plants, such as corn, to prevent the accumulation of pathogenic organisms.

    Common bugs that assault black cohosh include cutworms and blister beetles. Consult the Organic Products Evaluation Institute for approved natural insecticides that can be attempted. Other insects that forage on black cohosh include deer, opossum, rabbits, slugs, and snails. Fencing and repellents may be effective in hindering these insects.

    Collecting, cleaning, and drying

    Most black cohosh is gathered in the fall, mostly since that is when the roots are at their peak in weight and bioactive constituents. There are some buyers who will likewise acquire it in the spring. The entire root, including root and fibrous roots, is gathered. Digging is typically done by hand using a spading fork.

    Shake the harvested roots free of soil and thoroughly separate out any roots that are not black cohosh. All soil, sand, rocks, and other foreign matter needs to be gotten rid of. Secure from the sun and heat and do not enable the roots to dry out. If the roots are to be utilized as planting stock, they should be planted immediately or mixed with moist sphagnum moss and kept in mesh bags, burlap bags, or cardboard boxes in a cooler at about 40 ° F. Inspect typically to ensure the roots do moist out and stir the roots to aerate and avoid mold and mildew. If the roots will be cost processing, wash them thoroughly with a pressure water hose pipe or a root washer. A common root washer includes a rotating drum with water nozzles placed to spray the roots as they tumble, completely cleaning them. It can not be worried enough how crucial it is to eliminate all soil and sand from the roots. This can be difficult because of the knotty nature of black cohosh roots. Some roots will need to be cut to get them tidy, but filthy roots will bring a low price or be turned down by the buyer.

    If a dried item is desired, once the roots are clean, dry them at low heat with high air flow. If a special herb clothes dryer is not readily available, a food dehydrator, a bulk tobacco barn, or a small space equipped with racks, a heating system, dehumidifier, and a fan can be utilized. There are a number of various temperature routines for drying black cohosh, however the easiest one is to dry them at 80 to 95 ° F for a number of days to a week. When the roots are entirely dry, shop in burlap bags, polysacks, or cardboard drums, in a cool, dark, and dry location. Keep no longer than one year. The dry-down rate for black cohosh is approximately one-third of its fresh weight. Prospective yield per acre of the dried roots ranges from 750 to 2,500 pounds per acre. [6]

    Bioactive elements

    The main bioactive components of black cohosh seem the triterpene glycosides, including actein and 27-deoxyactein (also referred to as 23-epi-26-deoxyactein); phenylpropanoid derivatives, most of which are caffeic acid derivatives; and flavonoids. Other substances found in the root consist of aromatic acids, tannins, resins, and fatty acids. [7]

    System of action

    Although the system by which black cohosh relieves menopausal signs is unknown, numerous hypotheses have been made. It is believed to act through the following mechanisms/effects: as a selective estrogen receptor modulator, through serotonergic paths, as an antioxidant, on inflammatory paths.

    The main active element of the black cohosh root is believed to be the terpene glycoside fraction, including actein and cimifugoside. The triterpenes are among the most ubiquitous and diverse groups of plant natural items. They are classified as complex molecules that are beyond the reach of chemical synthesis in the laboratory. Easy triterpenes are constituents of surface area waxes and specialized plant membranes and may perhaps work as indicating particles. More complex glycosylated triterpenes (likewise referred to as saponins) supply defense versus pathogens and pests. The root (stem part of the plant) also contains other possibly biologically active compounds, consisting of alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. The healing activity of black cohosh was at first believed to be the activation of estrogen receptors; nevertheless, more recent research studies reveal that although some elements of the extract bind to a minimum of one subtype of estrogen receptor, the receptor binding produces extremely little (if any) estrogenic result, and may selectively block a few of the results.

    An early research study reported that treatment with black cohosh causes a reduction in luteinizing hormonal agent (LH) levels constant with its supposed estrogenic impact. Regardless of this, more current studies have revealed no effect on levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormonal agent (FSH), or prolactin. To this day it is unclear whether black cohosh applies its effect through estrogen receptors or through another mechanism.

    One research study observed that while the most prominent triterpene in black cohosh, known as 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, prevents cytokine-induced nitric oxide production in brain microglial cells, the total black cohosh extract demonstrated to enhance this pathway. A variety of activities have been reported for black cohosh and its compounds, nevertheless, the absorption and tissue circulation of these compounds is not known.

    Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) is utilized usually to treat symptoms occurring during menopause. However, in the last few years, a number of issues concerning its safety have actually been voiced. [8]

    Benefits and utilizes

    Black cohosh has a variety of prospective advantages– most of them related to women’s health or hormone balance. Yet, with the exception of menopause signs, there is little evidence to support its usage for any of these conditions.

    Menopause and menopause signs

    Relieving menopause signs is the reason many people utilize black cohosh, and it’s one of the uses that has the most compelling evidence to support it.

    In one research study in 80 menopausal women who were experiencing hot flashes, those who supplemented with 20 mg of black cohosh daily for 8 weeks reported substantially less and less serious hot flashes than prior to they began the supplement.

    What’s more, other human research studies have actually confirmed comparable findings. Though larger studies are needed, black cohosh appears to be useful for relieving menopause symptoms.


    Although you may see many claims online that black cohosh can improve fertility or help you get pregnant, there’s not a lot of proof to support this.

    Nevertheless, research study suggests that black cohosh might improve the effectiveness of the fertility drug Clomid (clomiphene citrate) in individuals who are infertile, increasing their chances of conceiving.

    Three little human studies reveal an improvement in pregnancy rates or ovulation in females with infertility who took black cohosh supplements in addition to Clomid.

    Still, these studies were little, and more research study is needed to validate this effect.

    Women’s health

    Black cohosh is also used for a variety of other functions related to ladies’s health. Nevertheless, the evidence supporting these benefits is not as strong as the proof supporting its advantages for menopause and fertility.

    Here are a few more factors ladies may utilize black cohosh to support hormone balance:.

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Supplementing with black cohosh may increase a woman with PCOS’s chances of getting pregnant on Clomid. Supplementing with black cohosh might also assist manage your cycles if you have PCOS.

    Fibroids. One 3-month study in 244 postmenopausal women found that supplementing everyday with 40 mg of black cohosh may decrease the size of uterine fibroids by as much as 30%.

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric condition (PMDD). Though there are some claims online that black cohosh can help with PMS or PMDD, there’s no significant evidence to support this.

    Menstrual cycle guideline. In females with or without PCOS who are receiving fertility treatments like Clomid, black cohosh may help manage their menstruation.


    Black cohosh has some potentially estrogenic activity, meaning it behaves like the hormone estrogen, which might intensify breast cancer or increase your breast cancer threat.

    However, most studies show that black cohosh does not impact your breast cancer risk. In 2 human research studies, taking black cohosh was connected with a decreased risk of breast cancer.

    In test-tube studies, black cohosh extract showed anti-estrogen activity and helped slow the spread of breast cancer cells.

    Still, more research study needs to be done to understand the link between breast cancer and black cohosh.

    Psychological health

    Black cohosh might have some helpful effects on mental health, especially in menopausal women.

    One review of studies investigated making use of organic supplements for anxiety and depression in menopausal females. Scientists discovered that supplementing with black cohosh had no effect on anxiety, however it was linked to substantial enhancements in psychological signs.

    Yet, more research is needed before the effect of black cohosh on mental health is totally comprehended.


    Although there’s little proof that black cohosh can improve sleep, it may help reduce signs that are triggering sleep disruptions in menopausal ladies, such as hot flashes.

    However, one small research study in 42 menopausal females found that supplementing with black cohosh seemed to improve sleep duration and quality.

    Another research study kept in mind that a combination of black cohosh and other compounds– including chasteberry, zinc, ginger, and hyaluronic acid– assisted improve hot flashes that were associated with insomnia and stress and anxiety.

    Still, it’s hard to state whether black cohosh or one of the other ingredients was the beneficial substance in this mixture.

    Weight reduction

    Menopausal females might be at an increased threat of undesirable weight gain, as their estrogen levels naturally reduce.

    In theory, due to the fact that black cohosh may exhibit estrogenic effects, it might have a little helpful effect on weight management in menopausal ladies.

    Nevertheless, the proof to support this is very little. More and bigger human studies are required to understand the link, if any, in between black cohosh and weight management. [9]

    Possible side effects

    Adverse effects of black cohosh may consist of:

    • Headache
    • Heaviness in the legs
    • Indigestion
    • Low high blood pressure
    • Nausea
    • Perspiration
    • Throwing up
    • Weight gain

    In large dosages, black cohosh may cause seizures, visual disturbances, and a sluggish or irregular heart beat.

    Stop utilizing black cohosh and look for medical attention if you experience stomach pain, dark urine, or jaundice. [10]

    How to take black cohosh?

    The basic black cohosh dosage is 40 mg to 128 mg of extract daily for approximately 12 months. “the most typical preparations are tinctures and pills, however motivated people can make their own,” dr. Lin states. To brew it at home:.

    1. Simmer 1 cup of water with 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of dried black cohosh root.
    2. Keep stove top for 10-15 minutes.
    3. Pressure and drain to 3 cups daily. [11]


    The british herbal compendium advises taking 40-200 milligrams (mg) of the herb in dried form, spread throughout the day into specific doses. Traditionally, much greater dosages spread out evenly in 3 doses were advised.

    In liquid or tincture form, dosages of 0.4-2 milliliters of a 60 percent ethanol mixture may be enough. For less quickly absorbed forms of the herb, such as teas or powders, 1-2 gram (g) dosages are recommended 3 times daily.

    Other studies have shown take advantage of taking 6.5 to 160 mg of black cohosh orally for as much as a year. In liquid or tincture type, some research studies revealed menopause symptom relief with 40 drops of the herb mix taken orally one or two times daily for approximately 24 weeks.

    Restricted research studies have actually revealed that certain dosages of black cohosh may be more reliable than others at dealing with specific menopause signs.

    Additional prospective dosing suggestions include:.

    • Postmenopausal breast cancer: one to four 2.5 mg tablets daily for 6 months together with tamoxifen, or 20 mg everyday taken orally for one year.
    • Postmenopausal heart problem: 40 mg daily for 3 months, stopped, then taken for another 3 months.
    • Psychological efficiency in postmenopausal ladies: 128 mg daily for 1 year.
    • Bone density in postmenopausal women: 40 mg daily for as many as 3 months. [12]

    What other drugs communicate with black cohosh?

    If your doctor has directed you to use this medication, your doctor or pharmacist might currently be aware of any possible drug interactions and might be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or alter the dosage of any medicine before contacting your physician, healthcare service provider or pharmacist initially.

    Black cohosh has no recognized serious interactions with other drugs.

    Major interactions of black cohosh include:.

    • Daclizumab

    Black cohosh has no recognized moderate interactions with other drugs.

    Mild interactions of black cohosh consist of:.

    • Nevirapine
    • Tamoxifen
    • Tenofovir df
    • Zidovudine

    This file does not contain all possible interactions. For that reason, before using this item, inform your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist. Check with your physician if you have health questions or issues. [13]

    Further more

    Atorvastatin (lipitor)

    Interaction rating= moderate be cautious with this mix.

    There is concern that black cohosh may harm the liver. Taking black cohosh with atorvastatin might increase the opportunity of liver damage.

    Cisplatin (platinol-aq)

    Interaction rating= moderate beware with this combination.

    Cisplatin is used to deal with cancer. There is some issue that black cohosh may decrease how well cisplatin works for cancer.

    Medications altered by the liver (cytochrome p450 2d6 (cyp2d6) substrates)

    Interaction rating= moderate be cautious with this combination.

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Black cohosh may change how rapidly the liver breaks down these medications. This might change the effects and side effects of these medications.

    Medications moved by pumps in cells (organic anion-transporting polypeptide substrates)

    Interaction ranking= minor be watchful with this combination.

    Some medications are moved in and out of cells by pumps. Black cohosh might alter how these pumps work and alter just how much medication remains in the body. In some cases, this might alter the impacts and negative effects of a medication.

    Medications that can harm the liver (hepatotoxic drugs)

    Interaction score= moderate beware with this combination.

    Black cohosh may damage the liver. Some medications can also damage the liver. Taking black cohosh in addition to a medication that can harm the liver may increase the risk of liver damage. [14]


    Prior to taking black cohosh, tell your physician or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to salicylates (e.g., aspirin); or if you have any other allergies. This item contains salicylates. This product might include inactive active ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. If you have any of the following illness, consult your physician or pharmacist before using this item: hormone-sensitive cancer (e.g., breast, ovarian, endometrial), high risk of breast cancer, thickening issues (e.g., protein s shortage, stroke), heart issues (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cardiac arrest), hypertension, liver issues, problems of the uterus (e.g., endometriosis, fibroids). This product may make you woozy. Do not drive, use equipment, or do any activity that requires awareness until you make sure you can carry out such activities securely. Limitation alcoholic beverages. To avoid lightheadedness and lightheadedness, get up gradually when increasing from a sitting or lying position. Liquid preparations of this item might contain sugar and/or alcohol. Care is recommended if you have diabetes, alcohol dependence, or liver disease. Ask your physician or pharmacist about utilizing this item safely. Black cohosh is not recommended for use during pregnancy. It might trigger early labor. Consult your doctor before utilizing this product. It is unidentified if this item passes into breast milk. Breast-feeding while using this product is not recommended. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding. [15]


    It is concluded that black cohosh may reduce the frequency of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause which more studies were necessitated on its effectiveness and security. The authors’ conclusions appeared to reflect the evidence, however offered the likelihood of predispositions in identifying pertinent studies it was difficult to confirm these conclusions. [16]


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