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Phosphorus

    Phosphorus is a mineral that naturally happens in lots of foods and is likewise available as a supplement. It plays several roles in the body. It is a crucial element of bones, teeth, and cell membranes. It helps to activate enzymes, and keeps blood pH within a normal variety. Phosphorus controls the regular function of nerves and muscles, including the heart, and is likewise a foundation of our genes, as it comprises DNA, RNA, and ATP, the body’s major source of energy. The kidneys, bones, and intestines securely control phosphorus levels in the body. If the diet plan lacks phosphorus or too little phosphorus is absorbed, a number of things occur to preserve its stores and try to preserve typical levels: the kidneys excrete less phosphorus in urine, the gastrointestinal tract becomes more efficient at taking in phosphorus, and the bones release its stores of phosphorus into the blood. The opposite actions occur in these organs if the body has adequate phosphorus shops. [3]

    Summary

    Numerous proteins and sugars in the body are phosphorylated. In addition, phosphorus plays crucial roles in guideline of gene transcription, activation of enzymes, upkeep of regular pH in extracellular fluid, and intracellular energy storage. In human beings, phosphorus makes up about 1 to 1.4% of fat-free mass. Of this amount, 85% remains in bones and teeth, and the other 15% is dispersed throughout the blood and soft tissues. Various types of foods contain phosphorus, generally in the form of phosphates and phosphate esters. Nevertheless, phosphorus in seeds and unleavened breads remains in the type of phytic acid, the storage type of phosphorus. Because human intestinal tracts lack the phytase enzyme, much phosphorus in this form is unavailable for absorption. Phosphorus undergoes passive absorption in the small intestine, although some is soaked up by active transportation.

    Phosphorus and calcium are related because hormones, such as vitamin D and parathyroid hormonal agent (PTH), manage the metabolic process of both minerals. In addition, phosphorus and calcium comprise hydroxyapatite, the main structural element in bones and tooth enamel. The combination of high phosphorus intakes with low calcium intakes increases serum PTH levels, however evidence is mixed on whether the increased hormone levels reduce bone mineral density.

    The kidneys, bones, and intestinal tracts control phosphorus homeostasis, which requires upkeep of urinary losses at comparable levels to net phosphorus absorption and ensuring that equivalent quantities of phosphorus are transferred and resorbed from bone. Numerous hormones, including estrogen and adrenaline, also affect phosphorus homeostasis. When kidney function decreases, as in chronic kidney failure, the body can not excrete phosphate efficiently, and serum levels rise. Although phosphorus status is not usually examined, phosphate can be measured in both serum and plasm. In grownups, regular phosphate concentration in serum or plasma is 2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL (0.81 to 1.45 mmol/L). Hypophosphatemia is specified as serum phosphate concentrations lower than the low end of the regular variety, whereas a concentration higher than the luxury of the variety indicates hyperphosphatemia. Nevertheless, plasma and serum phosphate levels do not always show whole-body phosphorus content.

    Consumption recommendations for phosphorus and other nutrients are offered in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medication. DRI is the basic term for a set of recommendation values utilized for planning and evaluating nutrition intakes of healthy people. These values, which differ by age and sex, consist of:.

    • Advised Dietary Allowance (RDA): Average day-to-day level of intake adequate to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%– 98%) healthy individuals; typically utilized to prepare nutritionally sufficient diet plans for individuals.
    • Appropriate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is presumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA.
    • Estimated Typical Requirement (EAR): Typical everyday level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy people; generally utilized to examine the nutrient intakes of groups of individuals and to plan nutritionally sufficient diets for them; can also be utilized to examine the nutrient intakes of individuals.
    • Bearable Upper Consumption Level (UL): Optimum daily consumption not likely to trigger adverse health impacts. [4]

    History

    Phosphorus was discovered by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669 through a preparation from urine, which naturally consists of substantial amounts of liquified phosphates from regular metabolic process. Operating in Hamburg, Brand name attempted to distill some salts by evaporating urine, and in the process produced a white product that shone in the dark and burnt remarkably. Since that time, phosphorescence has actually been used to explain substances that shine in the dark without burning. Phosphorus was first made commercially for the match market in the 19th century. The process included distilling off phosphorus vapors from precipitated phosphates warmed in a retort. The precipitated phosphates were made from ground-up bones that had been de-greased and treated with strong acids (Threlfall 1951). This process became obsolete in the late 1890s when the electrical arc furnace was adjusted to minimize phosphate rock (Threlfall 1951).

    Early matches consisted of white phosphorus, which threatened due to its toxicity. Murders, suicides, and accidental poisonings arised from its use. In addition, exposure to the vapors provided match employees a necrosis of the jaw bones, known as “phossy jaw.” When a safe procedure for producing red phosphorus was found, with its far lower flammability and toxicity, laws were enacted (under a Berne Convention) requiring its adoption as a more secure option for match manufacture. The electrical furnace technique permitted production to increase to the point phosphorus could be utilized in weapons of war. (Emsley, John. 2000). In World War I, it was utilized in incendiaries, smoke screens and tracer bullets (Threlfall 1951). A special incendiary bullet was established to contend hydrogen-filled Zeppelins over Britain (hydrogen naturally being highly flammable when it is sparked). Throughout World War II Bomb of benzene and phosphorus were dispersed in Britain to specifically selected civilians within the British Resistance Operation, for defense; and phosphorus incendiary bombs were utilized in War on a large scale. Burning phosphorus is tough to extinguish, and if it sprinkles onto human skin it has horrific impacts (see safety measures listed below). People covered in it were known to dedicate suicide due to the torture.

    Today phosphorus production is larger than ever, used as a precursor for numerous chemicals, (Aall 1952). in particular the herbicide glyphosate sold under the brand Roundup. Production of white phosphorus takes place at large facilities and is transferred heated up in liquid kind. Some significant mishaps have taken place throughout transport, train derailments at Brownston, Nebraska and Miamisburg, Ohio lead to big fires. The worst accident in current times though was an ecological one in 1968 when phosphorus spilled into the sea from a plant at Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. [5]

    Description

    Phosphorous is a multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group. It is found in nature in a number of allotropic kinds, and is an essential element for the life of organisms. There are several kinds of phosphorous, called white, red and black phosphorous, although their colours are most likely to be somewhat various. White phosphorous is the one produced industrial; it glows in the dark, is spontaneously combustible when exposed to air and is fatal poison. Red phosphorous can differ in colour from orange to purple, due to small variations in its chemical structure. The third form, black phosphorous, is made under high pressure, appears like graphite and, like graphite, has the ability to conduct electrical power.

    Applications

    Focused phosphoric acids are utilized in fertilizers for farming and farm production. Phosphates are utilized for unique glasses, sodium lamps, in steel production, in military applications (incendiary bombs, smoke screenings etc), and in other applications as: pyrotechnics, pesticides, toothpaste, detergents.

    Phosphorous in the environment

    In the natural world phosphorous is never come across in its pure kind, however only as phosphates, which consists of a phosphorous atom bonded to 4 oxygen atoms. This can exists as the adversely charged phosphate ion (PO43-), which is how it occurs in minerals, or as organophosphates in which there are natural particles connected to one, 2 or three of the oxygen atoms. The quantity of phosphorous that is naturally present in food differs significantly however can be as high as 370 mg/100 g in liver, or can be low, as in vegetable oils. Foods abundant in phosphorous consist of tuna, salmon, sardines, liver, turkey, chicken, eggs and cheese (200 g/100 g). There are many phosphate minerals, the most abundant being forms of apatite. Fluoroapatite supplies the most thoroughly mined deposits. The chief mining areas are Russia, U.S.A., Morocco, Tunisia, Togo and Nauru. World production is 153 million tones per year. There are issues over for how long these phosphorous deposits will last. In case of deficiency there could be a major issue for the worlds food production because phosphorus is such a necessary active ingredient in fertilizers. In the oceans, the concentration of phosphates is really low, particularly at the surface area. The factor lies partly within the insolubility of aluminum and calcium phosphates, but in any case in the oceans phosphate is rapidly used up and falls into the deep as natural debris. There can be more phosphate in rivers and lakes, resulting in excessive algae growth. For more details go to environmental impacts of phosphorous. [6]

    Biology

    Phosphorus is discovered as phosphate in the body. Phosphate is found in the DNA and RNA of the human body. Phosphorus is an active part of the distribution of energy throughout the human body. The suggested dietary intake of phosphate is 800 mg daily. A few of the foods that are rich in phosphorus are turkey, chicken, tuna, eggs, salmon, cheese etc. Usage of phosphate in larger quantities than that which is required causes severe health problems like osteoporosis, kidney problems and so on. Direct exposure to white phosphorus often results in drowsiness, nausea, stomach pain etc., in some people. [7]

    Advantages

    Let us see how phosphorus benefits our whole body in detail:.

    Reinforces Bone and Teeth

    Phosphorus is an important part of the growth procedure, as well as the maintenance of bones and teeth. It operates in association with calcium to create strong bones, which can hold up against the typical wear and tear of human life. It also assists in enhancing the health of your gums and tooth enamel. It assists in eliminating serious issues like bone loss or the loss of mineral density, likewise called osteoporosis. This mineral lays the foundation of a strong skeletal structure to ensure a healthy and functional living. One of the recent discoveries of phosphorous likewise links it to heart health, indicating that with an appropriate consumption, you can better protect yourself from a range of cardiovascular diseases.

    Increases Digestion

    Phosphorus plays an important function in assisting in reliable food digestion in the human body. It does this by promoting the food digestion of riboflavin and niacin in an efficient method. These two ranges of vitamin B are responsible for everything from basal metabolism to neurological and psychological response systems.

    Detoxification

    Phosphorus plays an important role in keeping the kidneys healthy. It does this by guaranteeing the correct release of waste from kidneys through the process of urination and excretion. By increasing the amount and frequency of urination, the body is able to balance its levels of uric acid, excess salts, water, and even fat, since urine is generally about 4% fat. Phosphorous motivates the healthy balance of all fluids and products that are eliminated from the body, consequently helping the whole body remain healthy and toxin-free.

    Reduces Weak point

    Phosphorous has the capability to remove minor health problems like muscle weak point, tingling, tiredness and similar conditions. Normal levels of phosphorous in the body are an excellent way to stay healthy and active. Sexual weak point can likewise be cured with healthy supplementation of phosphorous into the body, so issues like loss of sex drive, frigidity, impotence, and sperm motility can be increased by having an adequate supply of phosphorus in your system.

    Supports Cognitive Advancement

    Considering that phosphorous is an essential element found around as well as inside the cells of the brain, it is clearly responsible for important functions. Proper levels of phosphorous warranty proper brain function and cognitive growth and development. Research studies have connected a phosphorus deficiency to an increased danger of cognitive breakdown, and the early onset of neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s illness and dementia.

    Stimulates Protein Metabolic Process

    Phosphorus is among the most crucial aspects in the creation of proteins, which further help in the process of reproduction. It also facilitates the optimum utilization of proteins in the body to guarantee proper development of cells, together with their repair work when essential. In the same manner, phosphorus likewise helps our bodies make use of carbs as well as fats. The metabolism of proteins is what keeps our body growing and preserving itself as the wear and tear of the years continues. It is among the vital parts of human metabolic process, so phosphorus’ revitalizing impact is essential to our overall health.

    Increases Cell Repair

    Phosphorus is a very crucial component in the structure of DNA, which exists in the nucleus of the majority of cells in the body. Thus, it is very the mineral is extremely crucial during pregnancy. Phosphorus also adds to the repair procedure and maintenance of different body cells which experience day-to-day wear and tear. It ensures that body cells are established effectively and stay active for remarkable overall health. This contribution mainly is available in the form of helping to produce protein and promoting the appropriate hormones to respond accordingly around the body to stimulate metabolic activity.

    Makes Sure Hormone Balance

    The health advantages of phosphorus might be considered crucial for managing the balance of hormones in the body. It guarantees that hormones, especially those needed for good reproductive health, are constantly present in relevant and well balanced quantities. Phosphorus does this by directly interacting with the endocrine glands of the body and helps to control the creation and release of hormonal agents. The numerous hormonal agents in our body play very essential roles in all of our health concerns, and phosphorus is an irreplaceable part of that control system.

    Promotes Metabolic process

    Phosphorus aids in the process of energy extraction by stimulating the procedure of metabolism of various nutrients. Moreover, it assists in the flow of energy and its effective usage by various organ systems, some of which is because of its capability to soak up vitamins so effectively.

    Helps With Nutrient Uptake

    Phosphorus serves as a participant or co-factor in a variety of chain reactions taking place inside the body. Likewise, it assists in the appropriate usage of different nutrients going into the body. All in all, be sure to constantly consist of phosphorus in your diet, you will not get far without it! [8]

    Negative effects

    Phosphate supplements are thought about safe if taken as prescribed. Taking any supplement, nevertheless, might have possible negative effects. These side effects might prevail or serious.

    Typical Negative Effects

    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Stomach discomfort or upset
    • Increased thirst
    • Bone, joint, or muscle discomfort

    Serious Adverse Effects

    Allergies to phosphate are unusual, however it’s still crucial to call your supplier or look for emergency care if you experience any of the following after taking a phosphate supplement:.

    • Rash
    • Hives
    • Shortness of breath
    • Quick heart beat
    • Swelling of the face, throat, or tongue

    These could be signs of a potentially life-threatening, whole-body response known as anaphylaxis.

    Individuals with chronic kidney disease might need to prevent phosphate supplements. Given that the kidneys are less able to clear phosphate from the body, the mineral might build up and lead to hyperphosphatemia (exceedingly high phosphorus levels). Symptoms might consist of:.

    • Rash
    • Itching
    • Muscle cramps
    • Convulsions
    • Bone or joint discomfort
    • Pins and needles and tingling around the mouth

    Excess phosphorus can likewise impact urine acidity and cause the dislodgement of a formerly undiagnosed kidney stone. Outside of extreme kidney dysfunction, hyperphosphatemia is extremely uncommon. It is more associated with the failure to clear phosphorus from the body rather than with using phosphate supplements. [9]

    Phosphorus Rich Foods

    Egg

    Egg is a great source of phosphorus. Nevertheless, various parts of the egg consist of various amount of phosphorus. For instance, an entire egg includes 6g of protein and 86mg of phosphorus, whereas egg white from one large egg consists of 3.6 g protein and 5mg of phosphorus, suggesting that the bulk of phosphorus in the egg is in the yolk.

    Red meat

    Red meat such as beef and veal is possibly the most phosphorus-rich food. The perfect ratio of calcium to phosphorus is 1:1. Red meats have about 10 to 20 times more phosphorus than calcium. So consuming high quantity of red meat may add to calcium-phosphorus imbalance and lead to hyperphosphatemia.

    Poultry

    Poultry such as chicken and turkey include less phosphorus than red meat and fatty fish. Sometimes, poultry products (meats too) featured phosphate additives which considerably increase the total phosphorus content. Unless you specifically require to consume more phosphorus, it is finest you look for products that do not have phosphorus ingredients.

    Fatty fish and shell fish

    Shell fish such as clams and mollusks are excellent sources of phosphorus. For example, each 100 g of salmon consists of 21g protein and 282mg phosphorus. Likewise, 100g of cooked scallops supply 426mg of phosphorus equivalent to 43 percent of the everyday worth (DV).

    Milk and yogurt

    Dairy foods have a more well balanced calcium-phosphorus ratio and are thus excellent phosphorus-rich foods. A 150g serving of low fat plain yogurt supplies 40 percent of our daily phosphorus requirement. Likewise, milk, a total food in itself, is a balanced source of phosphorus. For example, a 200ml glass of milk supplies over half the everyday phosphorus requirement of a 6-year-old child and about 36 percent of daily requirement of a grownup.

    Cheese

    Different types of cheese may include a variety from less than 100 mg to almost 1000 mg per serving of integrated organic and inorganic phosphorus based on the kind of the cheese and its technique of processing. Hard cheese, ricotta or paneer, and cream cheese have higher phosphorus as compared to other cheeses. Nevertheless, it is best to prevent processed cheese because it consists of inorganic phosphorus that is soaked up by the human intestine in its whole and might lead to excess accumulation of phosphorus in the body.

    Yeast

    Yeast is really abundant in phosphorus content. Although it is not something that you can use as food per se, breads made with yeast make the phosphorus more readily available to the body. Apart from phosphorus, yeast is also abundant in B vitamins, chromium and a number of minerals and amino acids. In earlier days, brewer’s yeast was used by fitness enthusiasts in the preparation of energy protein drink.

    Beans and lentils

    Although beans and lentils might include greater amount of phosphorus as compared with say chicken or beef, animal proteins are thought about the very best sources of phosphorus. This is because animal protein foods have much better availability for phosphorus considering the fact that 40 to 60 percent of phosphorus in animal foods is soaked up by the body, whereas just 10 to 30 percent of phosphorus in plant.

    Chocolate

    The quantity of phosphorus in chocolate varies depending on the type of chocolate. 100g of dark chocolate supplies 308mg of phosphorus and the exact same amount of white chocolate supplies 176mg of phosphorus. Milk chocolates too have a whopping quantity of phosphorus as milk too is rich in phosphorus.

    Carbonated soda pop drinks

    Inorganic phosphorus present in processed foods such as soft drinks and processed cheese is 100 percent absorbed by the body. So you might require to be cautious with carbonated drinks and processed foods so as not to exceed phosphorus and dis-balance the calcium– phosphorus ratio. And a high phosphorus-to-calcium ratio increases parathyroid hormonal agent secretion which in turn sets off calcium loss. Diet plan sodas too are unhealthy considering that they are nothing but water, sweetening agents and chemicals such as phosphoric acid. [10]

    Just how much phosphorus do you require?

    The quantity of phosphorus you require in your diet plan depends upon your age. Grownups need less phosphorus than kids in between the ages of 9 and 18, however more than kids under age 8.

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for phosphorus is the following:

    • grownups (ages 19 years and older): 700 mg
    • children (ages 9 to 18 years): 1,250 mg
    • children (ages 4 to 8 years): 500 mg
    • kids (ages 1 to 3 years): 460 mg
    • babies (ages 7 to 12 months): 275 mg
    • infants (ages 0 to 6 months): 100 mg

    Few people require to take phosphorus supplements. The majority of people can get the needed quantity of phosphorus through the foods they eat.

    Dangers related to excessive phosphorus

    Excessive phosphate can be poisonous. An excess of the mineral can trigger diarrhea, in addition to a hardening of organs and soft tissue. High levels of phosphorus can impact your body’s capability to efficiently use other minerals, such as iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. It can combine with calcium causing mineral deposits to form in your muscles. It’s rare to have excessive phosphorus in your blood. Normally, only people with kidney problems or those who have problems controling their calcium establish this issue.

    Dangers associated with insufficient phosphorus

    Some medications can decrease your body’s phosphorus levels. Examples consist of:.

    • insulin
    • ACE inhibitors
    • corticosteroids
    • antacids
    • anticonvulsants

    Symptoms of low phosphorus can consist of:

    • joint or bone pain
    • anorexia nervosa
    • irritability or stress and anxiety
    • fatigue
    • poor bone development in children

    If you take these medications, speak to your healthcare provider about whether it’s advised that you consume foods high in phosphorus or take phosphorous supplements. [11]

    Safety measures

    Because of the capacity for adverse effects and interactions with prescription and non-prescription medications, you should take dietary supplements just under the supervision of a well-informed health care company. Too much phosphate can be toxic. It can cause diarrhea and calcification (hardening) of organs and soft tissue, and can disrupt the body’s ability to utilize iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Athletes and others taking supplements which contain phosphate ought to only do so periodically and with the assistance and direction of a healthcare supplier. Nutritional experts recommend a balance of calcium and phosphorus in the diet. The typical Western diet, nevertheless, contains approximately 2 to 4 times more phosphorus than calcium. Meat and poultry consist of 10 to 20 times as much phosphorus as calcium, and carbonated beverages can have as much as 500 mg of phosphorus in one serving. When there is more phosphorus than calcium in the body, the body will utilize calcium stored in bones. This can trigger osteoporosis (fragile bones) and result in gum and teeth problems. A balance of dietary calcium and phosphorus can lower the danger of osteoporosis.

    Possible Interactions

    If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you need to not utilize phosphorus preparations without very first talking with your doctor.

    Alcohol:

    Alcohol might seep phosphorus from the bones and cause low levels in the body.

    Antacids:

    Antacids consisting of aluminum, calcium, or magnesium (such as Mylanta, Amphojel, Maalox, Riopan, and Alternagel) can bind phosphate in the gut and avoid the body from absorbing it. Utilizing these antacids long term can trigger low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia).

    Anticonvulsants:

    Some anticonvulsants (consisting of phenobarbital and carbamazepine, or Tegretol) may reduce phosphorus levels and increase levels of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme that assists get rid of phosphate from the body.

    Bile acid sequestrants:

    These drugs lower cholesterol. They can decrease the oral absorption of phosphates from the diet plan or from supplements. Oral phosphate supplements ought to be taken at least 1 hour before or 4 hours after these drugs. Bile acid sequestrants consist of:.

    • Cholestyramine (Questran)
    • Colestipol (Colestid)

    Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids, including prednisone or methylprednisolone (Medrol), might increase phosphorus levels in the urine.

    Insulin:.

    High doses of insulin may decrease blood levels of phosphorus in people with diabetic ketoacidosis, a condition brought on by severe insulin deficiency.

    Potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics:

    Utilizing phosphorus supplements along with potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics may lead to too much potassium in the blood (hyperkalemia). Hyperkalemia can be a severe issue, leading to life threatening heart rhythm irregularities (arrhythmias). Potassium-sparing diuretics consist of:.

    • Spironolactone (Aldactone)
    • Triamterene (Dyrenium)

    ACE inhibitors

    ( blood pressure medication): Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, used to treat hypertension, might lower phosphorus levels. These consist of:.

    • Benazepril (Lotensin)
    • Captopril (Capoten)
    • Enalapril (Vasotec)
    • Fosinopril (Monopril)
    • Lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil)
    • Quinapril (Accupril)
    • Ramipril (Altace)

    Other drugs:

    Other drugs might decrease phosphorus levels. They consist of cyclosporine (used to reduce the immune system), heart glycosides (digoxin or Lanoxin), heparins (blood thinning drugs), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen or Advil). Salt replaces contain high levels of potassium and might lower phosphorus levels if used long term.

    Conclusion

    The body requires the mineral phosphorus to carry out a lot of its standard functions. Most people get a lot of phosphorus through their diet plan. Individuals who have particular health conditions or are taking specific medications might require to increase or decrease their phosphorus intake. Anybody who is concerned about their phosphorus consumption or is experiencing symptoms of a phosphorus shortage need to talk to their medical professional. [13]

    References

    1. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/phosphorus
    2. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/phosphorus
    3. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/phosphorus/
    4. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Phosphorus-HealthProfessional/
    5. https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Phosphorus
    6. https://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/p.htm
    7. https://www.vedantu.com/chemistry/properties-and-reactions-of-phosphorus
    8. https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/minerals/health-benefits-of-phosphorus.html
    9. https://www.verywellhealth.com/phosphorus-health-benefits-4589810#toc-what-are-the-side-effects-of-phosphate
    10. https://www.medindia.net/patients/lifestyleandwellness/top-ten-phosphorus-rich-foods.htm
    11. https://www.healthline.com/health/phosphorus-in-diet#too-little-phosphorus
    12. https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/supplement/phosphorus
    13. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325623#summary

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