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    An acid C6H5NO2 of the vitamin B complex found commonly in animals and plants and used particularly against pellagra. [1]


    Niacin is a kind of vitamin B3 made in the body from tryptophan. It’s discovered in lots of foods consisting of meat, fish, milk, eggs, green veggies, and cereals.

    Niacin is required for the proper function of fats and sugars in the body and to maintain healthy cells. At high doses, niacin may help individuals with heart problem because of its impacts on blood clot. It might also improve levels of fats called triglycerides in the blood.

    Prescription forms of niacin are approved by the United States FDA for abnormal cholesterol levels and for avoiding vitamin B3 deficiency and associated conditions such as pellagra. Individuals utilize niacin supplements for metabolic syndrome, heart problem, cataracts, high blood pressure, and many other conditions, however there is no good clinical evidence to support most of these other uses.

    Do not confuse niacin with NADH, niacinamide, inositol nicotinate, IP-6, or tryptophan. These are not the same. [2]

    History of pellagra

    Pellagra was unidentified to the doctors of the ancient world and the Middle Ages. It was initially explained by the physician Gaspar Casal in Spain in 1735, soon after the maize was introduced into Europe. The name of the illness was developed in 1771 by an Italian physician Francesco Frapolli.

    Due to the terrific boost in using maize in northern part of Italy, pellagra became so widespread that a special hospital (known as Legano) was integrated in 1784, specifically for pellagra patients. Reports on the occurrence of pellagra appeared quickly afterwards in France (1829 ), Romania (1858) and Egypt (1874 ).

    After 1900 pellagra ended up being a considerable health issue in the United States as well, particularly in the South. It closely followed the introduction of a brand-new grain processing approach that removed the majority of the vitamins from processed grain. There was a particular shift from the use of coarsely ground corn meal in regional, water-driven mills to finely bolted meal by large milling companies.

    The break outs of pellagra were so common and serious that a bulk of physicians considered the cause to be a transmittable representative. The true nature of illness was determined when the Federal Government of the United States sent a doctor from New york city, Joseph Goldberger, to study the illness.

    The discovery of niacin

    Nicotinic acid was synthesized in 1867 by oxidation of nicotine and widely used in photography. It was long thought that it has nothing to do with food or health issues, up until German researchers demonstrated that nicotinic acid occurs in yeast and in rice polishing. There it was isolated by the Polish-American.

    biochemist Casimir Funk in 1912, while he was looking for a remedy for another disease known as beriberi (dietary condition triggered by a shortage of thiamine).

    Because nicotinic acid had no result on beriberi, he deserted his deal with that substance. However although he was wrong, he showed that this nicotinic acid most likely had some nutritional value. It was delegated the Austrian-American doctor Joseph Goldeberger to find the connection in between nicotinic acid and deficiency illness it can cause.

    In 1915, Goldberger performed a series of experiments on 11 healthy volunteer detainees in a Mississippi prison and discovered that he could cause pellagra by modifying their diet plans. He concluded that the disease was brought on by the lack of some factor that was doing not have in corn, however that could be discovered in meat and milk. He named it the P-P (for pellagra-preventative) aspect.

    The chemical structure of that element was consequently discovered in 1937 by the American biochemist Conrad Arnold Elvehjem. He caused a black tongue in pets by feeding them the Goldberger diet, and after that cured the disease by supplementing their diet with nicotinic acid. He likewise separated the P-P element from active liver extracts, showing that this aspect is in fact nicotinic acid (subsequently called niacin for nicotinic acid vitamin).

    After this discovery, grain products (wheat, maize) were enhanced with nicotinic acid or nicotinamide. Still, a large scale social reform was required to make sure correct execution of such dietary modifications. The majority of sporadic cases in the developed nations are now seen in alcoholics, although in rare instances other clients can establish the illness as well (i.e. malabsorption or iatrogenic scenarios). [3]



    In addition to taking in niacin from diet plan, niacin can be manufactured from the important amino acid tryptophan, a five-step process with the penultimate compound being quinolinic acid (see figure). Some bacteria and plants use aspartic acid in a pathway that also goes to quinolinic acid. For human beings, the effectiveness of conversion is estimated as requiring 60 mg of tryptophan to make 1 mg of niacin. Riboflavin, vitamin B6 and iron are required for the process. Pellagra is a consequence of a corn-dominant diet plan due to the fact that the niacin in corn is inadequately bioavailable and corn proteins are low in tryptophan compared to wheat and rice proteins.

    Industrial synthesis

    Nicotinic acid was first synthesized in 1867 by oxidative degradation of nicotine. Niacin is prepared by hydrolysis of nicotinonitrile, which, as described above, is created by oxidation of 3-picoline. Oxidation can be effected by air, but ammoxidation is more effective. In the latter process, nicotinonitrile is produced by ammoxidation of 3-methylpyridine. Nitrile hydratase is then utilized to catalyze nicotinonitrile to nicotinamide, which can be transformed to niacin. Alternatively, ammonia, acetic acid and paraldehyde are utilized to make 5-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine, which is then oxidized to niacin. [84] New “greener” drivers are being evaluated utilizing manganese-substituted aluminophosphates.

    that usage acetyl peroxyborate as non-corrosive oxidant, preventing producing nitrogen oxides as do conventional ammoxidations.

    The demand for business production consists of for animal feed and for food fortification suggested for human intake. According to Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, around the world 31,000 lots of nicotinamide were sold in 2014. [4]

    Mechanism of action

    Niacin carries out a number of functions in the body therefore has lots of systems, not all of which have actually been fully described. Niacin can reduce lipids and apolipoprotein B (apo B)- containing lipoproteins by modulating triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which degrades apo B, or by regulating lipolysis in adipose tissue.

    Niacin prevents hepatocyte diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2. This action avoids the last step of triglyceride synthesis in hepatocytes, limiting available triglycerides for extremely low density lipoproteins (VLDL). This activity also results in intracellular destruction of apo B and reduced production of low density lipoproteins, the catabolic product of VLDL.

    Niacin also prevents a high density lipoprotein (HDL) catabolism receptor, which increases the levels and half life of HDL. [5]

    Food source

    Yellowfin tuna: 18.8 mg, 117% everyday worth (dv)

    While tuna is an exceptional source of niacin, larger varieties like yellowfin or albacore tend to be greater in mercury than smaller species like skipjack.

    A cooked, 3-ounce filet of prepared yellowfin tuna delivers 117 percent of the dv for niacin, plus 83 percent of the dv for vitamin b12, which is required for energy.

    Beef liver: 14.7 mg, 92% dv

    Ok, so we do not expect you to consume beef liver on a daily basis, but the organ meat is an outstanding source of b vitamins, consisting of niacin. One slice of fried beef liver offers an outstanding 92 percent of the dv for niacin. It’s also rife with vitamin a, iron and zinc.

    Turkey breast: 10 mg, 62% dv

    Turkey is frequently promoted as the main source of tryptophan, however in truth, lots of animal proteins (including eggs, chicken and cheese) offer the vital amino acid, according to the u.s. National library of medication.

    So, you’ll most likely get back at more than 62 percent of the dv for niacin from this 3-ounce serving of roasted turkey breast thanks to the conversion of a few of its tryptophan to nad in the body. However in order for the amino acid to be changed into niacin, the body must have enough levels of other nutrients, like iron, b6 and riboflavin.

    Sockeye salmon: 8.6 mg, 54% dv

    Niacin-rich sockeye salmon is likewise an exceptional source of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fats.

    In addition to providing anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin d, prepared salmon is also an outstanding source of niacin, with 54 percent of the dv present in a 3-ounce serving.

    Chicken breast: 8 mg, 50% dv

    3 ounces of prepared chicken breast can dish out half of the dv for niacin, plus 27 grams of satiating protein.

    If you’re feeling uninspired by poultry, attempt cooking up these healthy chicken recipes you haven’t attempted yet (we assure they will not dissatisfy).

    Portobello mushrooms: 7.6, 47% dv

    For a niacin-rich meal, toss portobello mushrooms on the grill in addition to your protein of option. One cup of grilled portobello mushrooms supplies 47 percent of the dv for niacin, deeming them a few of the best vegetarian foods high in niacin.

    Pork chops: 6.8 mg, 42% dv

    A pork slice can serve up almost half of your everyday niacin needs.

    Though fattier than other cuts like the tenderloin (which is the leanest cut of pork), chops are an excellent natural source of niacin. A 3-ounce, cooked pork chop provides 42 percent of the dv for niacin.

    Brown rice: 5.2 mg, 32% dv

    It’s safe to say that brown rice is amongst the vegetarian foods greatest in niacin. You’ll get 33 percent of the dv for vitamin b3 in 1 cup of cooked wild rice. You’ll also get nearly 6 grams of protein and 3 grams of fiber from the whole grain.


    Pair plant-based protein sources like wild rice with black beans for a complete protein that provides all nine of the essential amino acids.

    Canned white tuna: 4.9 mg, 31% dv

    The american heart association recommends consuming fish a minimum of two times per week to preserve a healthy heart. Simply make sure to practice moderation when it comes to canned tuna ranges like albacore or white tuna.

    Though abundant in niacin– 3 ounces of canned white tuna offers 31 percent of the dv for the b vitamin– these ranges tend to be greater in mercury compared to smaller sized types like skipjack tuna, per the united states environmental protection agency (epa). Attempt the seafood in these non-salad canned tuna dishes.

    Steak: 4.8 mg, 30% dv

    Iron-rich skirt steak also dishes out vitamin b3.

    Grilled skirt steak is a high-protein source of niacin, with a 3-ounce serving providing 30 percent of the dv for the nutrient.

    Beef is likewise high in minerals like iron, which supports healthy blood cell development and oxygen delivery throughout the body, according to the university of california san francisco health.

    Peanuts: 4.1 mg, 25% dv

    If you’re searching for vegan foods high in niacin, 1 ounce of dry-roasted peanuts provides 25 percent of the dv. The legumes are likewise rich in unsaturated fats that support healthy lipid levels. Pb&& j, anybody?

    Prepared breakfast cereals: 4 mg, 25% dv

    It’s hard to say exactly just how much niacin you’ll receive from a prepared breakfast cereal, as different items provide different amounts of the b vitamin, however approximates range anywhere from 20 to 27 percent of the dv per 1 cup, according to oregon state university.

    Baked potato: 2.6 mg, 17% dv

    Potatoes are a top quality carb that not only offer niacin however likewise provide potassium and vitamin c.

    Can we all accept give routine old russet potatoes more love? Sure, sweet potatoes are high in the antioxidant beta-carotene, however one medium baked russet potato delivers 17 percent of the dv for niacin, plus potassium and vitamin c.

    White rice (enriched): 2 mg, 13% dv

    Though wild rice is a much better source of niacin, enriched white rice isn’t too far behind. A 1/2-cup serving of prepared, enriched white rice puts 13 percent of the dv for niacin on the table.

    Much like fortified foods, enriched foods have nutrients contributed to them. The distinction here is that the included nutrients were initially in the food, however stripped away during processing.

    Lentils: 2.1 mg, 13% dv

    Replacing animal proteins like meat with beans like lentils (in addition to other plant-based proteins like nuts and soy) is related to a lower danger of coronary heart disease, per a big prospective friend research study released in december 2020 in the british medical journal.

    One cup of prepared lentils consists of 13 percent of the dv for niacin. The pulses are also a great source of non-heme iron, folate and resistant starch, per the harvard t.h. Chan school of public health.

    Sunflower seeds: 2 mg, 12% dv

    An ounce of dry-roasted sunflower seeds can bring you 12 percent of the dv for niacin. Spray them on top of salads or mix them into entire grains like farro for a satisfying crunch.

    Bulgur: 1.8 mg, 11% dv

    A cup of cooked bulgur provides 11 percent of the dv for niacin, plus minerals like iron, magnesium and manganese. Work up a batch of the entire grain for the week, then utilize it in various dishes like grain bowls, soups and salads.

    Avocado: 1.7 mg, 11% dv

    An outstanding source of heart-healthy monounsaturated fats, avocado is likewise a strong vegetarian source of niacin. A half of an avocado includes 11 percent of the dv for the vitamin. Naturally, we ‘d never ever restrict you to simply a half of an avocado.

    Don’t miss these innovative and tasty ways to consume avocado that exceed your basic guac or avo toast.

    Whole-wheat bread: 1.4 mg, 9% dv

    Entire grains are amongst the healthiest plant sources of niacin and whole wheat bread is no exception. One slice of entire wheat bread can offer nearly 10 percent of the dv for niacin. Top your toast with peanut butter and a spray of sunflower seeds for a satisfying treat.

    Pumpkin seeds: 1.3 mg, 8% dv

    Niacin-rich pumpkin seeds in a little wooden bowl.

    Not only are pumpkin seeds a good source of niacin, they’re likewise a nourishing method to include crunch to meals.

    Magnesium-rich pumpkin seeds are also a good-for-you source of niacin. One ounce of shelled, salted pumpkin seeds consists of 8 percent of the dv for vitamin b3.

    Sprinkle them on salads or your early morning oatmeal bowl for additional texture– and nutrients.

    Banana: 0.9 mg, 6% dv

    By now you know that there are a lot of vitamin b3 vegetables and fruits– and bananas make it. One big banana provides 6 percent of the dv for niacin.

    Go ahead and add the fruit to your cereal bowl with a spoonful of peanut butter and a (spoiler alert) cup of coffee on the side for a healthy, high-niacin start to the day.

    Coffee: 0.5 mg, 3% dv

    While coffee isn’t sky-high in vitamin b3, 1 cup of joe can deliver about 3 percent of the DV for niacin. [6]

    Advantages of niacin

    While more research studies require to be carried out and supporting proof should be identified, there are a variety of uses for niacin. In regards to health advantages, niacin potentially can:.

    • Control cholesterol
    • Lower blood pressure
    • Enhance mental health
    • Clear skin
    • Handle migraines
    • Promote joint health
    • Secure cognitive function
    • Assistance digestion
    • Lessen abnormality
    • Improve impotence

    It assists manage cholesterol levels

    In some cases niacin is recommended together with cholesterol-lowering medications like statins to help stabilize blood lipid levels. It can increase high-density lipoprotein (hdl) cholesterol, which is the healthy sort of.

    Cholesterol, by 15% to 35%. And it can decrease low-density lipoprotein (ldl), the bad cholesterol, by 5% to 25%.

    Other evidence shows that niacin benefits people with an increased danger of heart attacks and cardiovascular disease since it not just lowers ldl cholesterol but also triglycerides. Niacin can reduce triglyceride levels by 20% to 50%. The prescription solutions niaspan and niacor have fda approval to deal with dyslipidemia (elevated cholesterol or other fats in the blood).

    It might reduce blood pressure

    Small medical trials of using niacin have actually shown it has significant blood pressure decreasing results in people with hypertension. In addition, abrupt lowering of high blood pressure is described in the plan insert of prescription niacin. Nevertheless, in larger clinical trials involving niacin and niacin-containing regimens there revealed either no clear considerable effects of niacin or slightly lower mean high blood pressure among some niacin treatment groups compared to placebo.

    More research studies require to be done to identify how reliable niacin can be for reducing blood pressure and minimizing the risk of cardiovascular events, however so far the research study appears promising.

    It might improve mental health

    Dietary routines have a substantial influence on numerous mental disorders including anxiety, anxiety, schizophrenia, and bipolar affective disorder. This has actually caused the development of dietary standards to help handle these conditions. Niacin deficiency has actually revealed a possible link to some mental illness.

    Research studies have documented minimized cerebral blood flow in depressed clients and enhanced cerebral blood flow following antidepressant treatment. Niacin is believed to increase cerebral blood circulation, so there is possible to use niacin supplements in addition to prescription antidepressants.

    It benefits the skin

    Niacin is a great supplement for the skin. It can help safeguard skin cells from sun damage, clear acne when used topically, and lower redness and swelling. Vitamin b3 in the formulation of niacinamide is often utilized as a natural topical skincare treatment to clear acne. Niacin can even help manage inflammatory skin conditions like bullous pemphigoid or granuloma annulare.

    It may assist manage migraines

    Although it’s uncertain how niacin achieves healing impacts, it could be beneficial for migraine and tension-type headaches and the avoidance of these headaches. Niacin might prevent migraine symptoms by broadening the intracranial vessels and following contractions of the extracranial vessels.

    It promotes joint health

    Vitamin b3 in the form of niacinamide has been shown to increase joint movement and reduce joint discomfort, swelling, and swelling. Because of its anti-inflammatory effect on joints, niacin might function as a good treatment choice for people with arthritis.

    It may secure against alzheimer’s illness

    In a research study released by the journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, dietary niacin was concluded to be a possible protector against alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decrease. A greater consumption of niacin might be related to a slower rate of cognitive decline over time.

    It’s good for food digestion

    Niacin is excellent for the digestive system since vitamin b3 assists break down nutrients like carbs and fats into energy. If somebody lacks niacin, they might have a difficult time digesting food and might experience gastrointestinal issues with time.

    It may avoid abnormality

    According to a 2017 research study released by the brand-new england journal of medication, niacin supplements during pregnancy avoided malformations in mice. More human research studies require to be done, however preliminary research suggests that niacin may assist avoid nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nad) abnormality in humans and lower total abnormality rates.

    On the other hand, care is encouraged for niacin supplements while breastfeeding, as there is minimal human data on the results of niacin in breastmilk. New or anticipating mothers need to always speak with their healthcare provider prior to introducing new supplements or medications during pregnancy or lactation.

    It might enhance impotence

    Erectile dysfunction (ed) is the failure to get or keep an erection. Because niacin helps improve blood circulation, it might also be good for impotence. In a study released by the journal of sexual medicine, a daily dosage of as much as 1,500 mg of niacin was enough to enhance sexual function amongst males who had both ed and dyslipidemia. Guy with dyslipidemia were studied due to the fact that dyslipidemia is closely related to ed. [7]

    Niacin deficiency

    Etiology of niacin deficiency

    Primary niacin shortage

    It results from very inadequate consumption of both niacin and tryptophan, which generally takes place in locations where maize (indian corn) makes up a considerable part of the diet plan. Bound niacin, discovered in maize, is not absorbed in the intestinal tract unless it has been formerly treated with alkali, as when tortillas are prepared. Corn protein is also deficient in tryptophan. The high incidence of pellagra in india amongst individuals who eat millet with a high leucine material has led to the hypothesis that amino acid imbalance may contribute to deficiency. Deficiencies of protein and numerous b vitamins commonly accompany main niacin shortage.

    Secondary niacin deficiency

    It may be because of diarrhea, cirrhosis, or alcohol addiction. Pellagra also may occur in carcinoid syndrome (tryptophan is diverted to form 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin) and in hartnup disease (absorption of tryptophan by the intestinal tract and kidneys is defective). [8]

    Reasons for niacin shortage

    One type of niacin shortage results from a deficiency of niacin and tryptophan (an amino acid). This form causes a disorder called pellagra, which impacts the skin, gastrointestinal system, and brain. Pellagra develops only if the diet plan is deficient in niacin and tryptophan because the body can convert tryptophan to niacin. People who live in areas where maize (indian corn) is the main food source are at danger of establishing pellagra due to the fact that maize is low in niacin and tryptophan. Moreover, the niacin in maize can not be soaked up in the intestinal tract unless the maize is treated with alkali (as it is when tortillas are

    Prepared). Pellagra may be a seasonal condition, appearing each spring and lasting through the summer, when the diet consists mainly of maize products.

    Pellagra likewise develops in individuals who have among the following:

    • Hartnup disease, an unusual genetic condition in which absorption of tryptophan is impaired
    • Carcinoid syndrome, an unusual disorder in which tryptophan is not transformed to niacin

    The following can lead to a shortage of niacin:

    • Alcohol addiction
    • Diarrhea
    • Cirrhosis
    • The antibiotic isoniazid if taken for a long time

    Symptoms of niacin shortage

    Usually, people with pellagra establish a symmetric, dark red rash that looks like a sunburn and becomes worse when it is exposed to sunlight (a condition called photosensitivity). The rash occurs in locations of sun exposure, and its location is unique:

    • On the arms and hands (like gloves)
    • On the feet and calves (like boots)
    • Around the neck (like a locket)
    • On the face forming a butterfly shape

    Skin abnormalities are relentless, and the impacted areas may end up being brown and flaky.

    The entire digestion tract is impacted. The tongue and mouth may end up being swollen and dark red. The tongue might swell, the mouth may burn, and sores might establish on both. The throat and esophagus may also burn. Saliva production might increase. Other signs consist of nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, constipation, and diarrhea (which might be bloody).

    Later, fatigue, sleeping disorders, and passiveness establish. Malfunction of the brain (encephalopathy) normally follows. It is characterized by confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, and amnesia. Individuals might be overexcited, depressed, very elated (manic), delirious, or paranoid (thinking that individuals intend to damage them). [9]


    In early deficiency, medical diagnosis needs a high index of suspicion and attempts at verification of niacin shortage. Niacin metabolites, especially n-methylnicotinamide, can be measured in the urine. Low levels recommend niacin deficiency but might likewise be found in clients with generalized under-nutrition. Serum and red cell levels of nad and nadp are also low but are likewise nonspecific. In innovative cases, the medical diagnosis of pellagra can be made on clinical grounds. [10]


    Normally a niacin deficiency might suggest multiple dietary deficiencies; for that reason, a balanced diet is a strong suggestion. Nicotinamide dosages of 250 to 500 mg/day orally need to be provided. Despite nicotinic acid being the more common type of niacin, nicotinamide is used for niacin deficiencies as it does not trigger symptoms such as tingling sensation, itching, or flushing. Patients with pellagra should avoid sun direct exposure and alcohol consumption. The recommended dietary allowance (rda) for niacin is expressed as niacin equivalents (ne). The rda for children ages 1 to 3 and 4 to 8 years of age is 6 and 8 mg/day of ne. For both young boys and girls ages 9 to 13, the rda is 12 mg/day of ne. For individuals 14 years or older, the rda is 16, and it is 14 mg/day of ne for males and females, respectively. Rda during lactation is 17 mg/day of ne. [11]

    Niacin negative effects

    Niacin oral tablet doesn’t cause sleepiness, however it can cause other side effects.

    More typical adverse effects

    Some of the more common side effects of niacin can consist of:.

    • Reddening and warming of your face (flushing)
    • Diarrhea
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Increased cough
    • Itching

    If these results are mild, they may go away within a few days or a number of weeks. If they’re more serious or don’t go away, speak with your doctor or pharmacist.

    Serious negative effects

    Call your physician immediately if you have serious negative effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you believe you’re having a medical emergency. Serious adverse effects and their symptoms can include the following:.

    • Muscle problems. Symptoms can include:
    • Inexplicable muscle weakness, tenderness, or discomfort
    • Liver problems. Symptoms can consist of:
    • Tiredness or weak point
    • Loss of appetite
    • Upper stomach discomfort
    • Dark-colored urine
    • Yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes [12]

    Dosage: how much niacin should i take?

    Constantly speak with a healthcare provider prior to taking a supplement to make sure that the supplement and dosage are appropriate for your individual requirements.

    A lot of healthy individuals acquire sufficient niacin through their diet, so extra supplements is not normally needed. A lot of research study is based on deficiencies.

    Some supplements consist of as much as 500 mg per serving, which is higher than the suggested day-to-day allowance for niacin. For that reason, it’s vital to discuss supplementation with a doctor. They can help you figure out if niacin supplements make good sense in your scenario and can assist you find the right formula and dose.

    What happens if i take excessive niacin?

    To prevent toxicity, know the appropriate dose and keep the tolerable upper limit in mind. The upper limit is the optimum day-to-day amount that’s thought about safe and not likely to cause unfavorable results. If you take in more than this quantity or more than what is advised by your doctor, you might experience the severe negative effects listed above.

    For niacin, toxicity has been noted in does over 1 gram. If you exceed these levels, you might wish to seek medical advice or go to the emergency clinic.

    Upper intake levels

    Upper consumption levels for niacin are as follows:.

    • 10 mg for kids 1-3 years
    • 15 mg for children 4-8 years
    • 20 mg for children 9-13 years
    • 30 mg for kids 14-18 years
    • 35 mg for grownups [13]


    Alcohol (ethanol) interaction ranking:

    Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

    Niacin can trigger flushing and irritation. Consuming alcohol together with niacin might make the flushing and itching even worse. There is also some concern that consuming alcohol with niacin may increase the opportunity of having liver damage.

    Allopurinol (zyloprim) interaction score:

    Moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

    Allopurinol (zyloprim) is utilized to deal with gout. Taking large dosages of niacin might worsen gout and reduce the effectiveness of allopurinol (zyloprim).

    Clonidine (catapres) interaction rating:

    Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

    Clonidine and niacin both lower high blood pressure. Taking niacin with clonidine might trigger your high blood pressure to become too low.

    Gemfibrozil (lopid) interaction rating:

    Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

    Taking niacin together with gemfibrozil might trigger muscle damage in some individuals. Usage with care.

    Medications for diabetes (antidiabetes drugs) interaction score:

    Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

    Use of high doses of niacin (about 3-4 grams day-to-day) may increase blood glucose. By increasing blood sugar level, niacin might reduce the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar carefully. The dose of your diabetes medication might require to be altered.

    Some medications used for diabetes consist of glimepiride (amaryl), glyburide (diabeta, glynase prestab, micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (actos), rosiglitazone (avandia), metformin (glucophage), nateglinide (starlix), repaglinide (prandin), chlorpropamide (diabinese), glipizide (glucotrol), tolbutamide (orinase), and others.

    Medications for high blood pressure (antihypertensive drugs) interaction rating:

    Moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

    Using niacin with drugs that lower high blood pressure might increase the effects of these drugs and may lower blood pressure too much.

    Some medications for high blood pressure consist of captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), losartan (cozaar), valsartan (diovan), diltiazem (cardizem), amlodipine (norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (hydrodiuril), furosemide (lasix), and lots of others.

    Medications that can harm the liver (hepatotoxic drugs) interaction score:

    Moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health company.

    Niacin might harm the liver. Sustained-release niacin preparations appear to have the greatest risk. Taking niacin in addition to medication that may likewise hurt the liver can increase the danger of liver damage. Do not take niacin if you are taking a medication that can hurt the liver.

    Some medications that can hurt the liver consist of acetaminophen (tylenol and others), amiodarone (cordarone), carbamazepine (tegretol), isoniazid (inh), methotrexate (rheumatrex), methyldopa (aldomet), fluconazole (diflucan), itraconazole (sporanox), erythromycin (erythrocin, ilosone, others), phenytoin (dilantin), lovastatin (mevacor), pravastatin (pravachol), simvastatin (zocor), and many others.

    Medications that slow blood clotting (anticoagulant/ antiplatelet drugs) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

    Niacin might slow blood clotting. Taking niacin along with medications that likewise sluggish clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

    Some medications that slow blood clot include aspirin, clopidogrel (plavix), dalteparin (fragmin), enoxaparin (lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (indocin), ticlopidine (ticlid), warfarin (coumadin), and others.

    Medications utilized for lowering cholesterol (bile acid sequestrants) interaction ranking:.

    Moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

    Some medications for decreasing cholesterol called bile acid sequestrants can decrease just how much niacin the body soaks up. This may minimize the effectiveness of niacin. Take niacin and the medications a minimum of 4-6 hours apart.

    A few of these medications utilized for lowering cholesterol consist of cholestyramine (questran) and colestipol (colestid).

    Medications utilized for decreasing cholesterol (statins) interaction rating:

    Moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

    Niacin can negatively impact the muscles. Some medications utilized for lowering cholesterol called statins can likewise impact the muscles. Taking niacin together with these medications may increase the threat of muscle issues.

    Some of these medications utilized for high cholesterol include rosuvastatin (crestor), atorvastatin (lipitor), lovastatin (mevacor), pravastatin (pravachol), fluvastatin (lescol), and simvastatin (zocor).

    Probenecid interaction ranking:

    Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

    Probenecid is used to treat gout. Taking big dosages of niacin may worsen gout and decrease the effectiveness of probenecid.

    Sulfinpyrazone (anturane) interaction ranking:

    Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

    Sulfinpyrazone (anturane) is utilized to treat gout. Taking big dosages of niacin may intensify gout and decrease the efficiency of sulfinpyrazone (anturane).

    Thyroid hormone interaction score:

    Moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

    The body naturally produces thyroid hormones. Niacin may reduce thyroid hormonal agent levels. Taking niacin with thyroid hormonal agent tablets may reduce the results and negative effects of thyroid hormone.

    Aspirin interaction rating:

    Minor be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

    Aspirin is often utilized with niacin to lower the flushing triggered by niacin. Taking high dosages of aspirin might reduce how quick the body eliminates niacin. This might cause there to be excessive niacin in the body and potentially lead to adverse effects. Nevertheless, the low dosages of aspirin most typically utilized for niacin-related flushing do not appear to be a problem.

    Nicotine spot (transdermal nicotine) interaction rating:

    Minor beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

    Niacin can sometimes trigger flushing and dizziness. The nicotine patch can likewise cause flushing and lightheadedness. Taking niacin or niacinamide and utilizing a nicotine patch can increase the possibility of ending up being flushed and woozy. [14]

    Preventative measures

    Because of the potential for adverse effects and interactions with medications, you ought to take dietary supplements just under the guidance of an educated healthcare supplier. Adverse effects may consist of diarrhea, headache, stomach pain, and bloating.

    High dosages (50 mg or more) of niacin can cause side effects. The most typical adverse effects is called “niacin flush,” which is a burning, tingling experience in the face and chest, and red or flushed skin. Taking an aspirin 30 minutes prior to the niacin may help reduce this sign.

    At extremely high dosages, used to lower cholesterol and deal with other conditions, liver damage and stomach ulcers can take place. Your physician will frequently examine your liver function through a blood test.

    People with a history of liver illness, kidney disease, or stomach ulcers ought to not take niacin supplements. Those with diabetes or gallbladder illness ought to do so just under the close guidance of their medical professionals.

    Stop taking niacin or niacinamide a minimum of 2 weeks prior to an arranged surgery.

    Niacin and niacinamide may make allergic reactions worse by increasing histamine.

    Individuals with low blood pressure must not take niacin or niacinamide since they may cause a hazardous drop in blood pressure. Do not take niacin if you have a history of gout.

    People with coronary artery disease or unstable angina must not take niacin without their physician’s guidance, as big doses can raise the risk of heart rhythm issues.

    Taking any one of the b vitamins for an extended period of time can result in an imbalance of other essential b vitamins. For this reason, you might wish to take a b-complex vitamin, that includes all the b vitamins. [15]


    The function of niacin as an antioxidant micro-nutrient has been established in a variety of research. The systems through which niacin safeguards the body versus oxidative tension can be maintaining the glutathione redox cycle, and also, reducing nadph/total nadp+ ratio in addition to increasing the nad+ material. Nevertheless the majority of the examinations in this area are restricted to speculative studies, these mechanistic research studies can be beneficial for additional clinical development of niacin and niacin-related compounds for the treatment of oxidative tension and its complications. [16]


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