Table of Contents
Fluoride is a type of the chemical aspect fluorine. It happens naturally in nature and is discovered in body tissues including calcium, such as bones and teeth.
Fluoride safeguards teeth from the bacteria in plaque. It also promotes new bone formation. This is different than most medicines utilized for weak bones (osteoporosis), which fight osteoporosis by keeping bone from being broken down.
Individuals commonly utilize fluoride to prevent cavities. It is likewise utilized for tooth plaque, a moderate form of gum disease (gingivitis), osteoporosis, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of its other uses.
The FDA alerts that swallowing too much tooth paste can increase the threat for tooth staining. However this is likely more of an interest in long-lasting usage rather than mistakenly swallowing it simply when. Likewise, beginning June 2022, fluoride levels in mineral water can not go beyond 0.7 mg per liter and need to be stated on the label. 
History of fluoride
When it comes to the world of dental health, we discuss fluoride regularly. And although most parents know it’s good for their kids’s teeth, they may not know why. When your kid eats sweet foods, germs in their mouths produce acid that can eat away at the minerals on the surface of the teeth. This makes them weaker and increases the chances of establishing cavities. Fluoride has actually been proven to secure teeth from this decay and can even assist restore the tooth’s surface! This mineral is the very best cavity fighter we have to assist keep your whole family’s teeth healthy and strong.
Fluoride is most effective when it originates from both internal and external sources. It can be gotten in 2 forms: topical and systemic. Topical fluorides are applied directly to the tooth enamel through fluoride tooth pastes, mouth rinses, and fluoride treatments in a dental office like Kid’s Dental Center. Particularly for kids who are at a moderate-to-high threat of establishing cavities, the expert fluoride treatments our dental professionals provide might be suggested every 3 or six months. The fluoride in this treatment is available in a varnish and typically just takes a few minutes to apply to the teeth. Your child might be asked not to eat or drink for at least 30 minutes later to enable their teeth to absorb the fluoride and help repair any microscopic areas of damage.
Systemic fluoride is ingested through sources like fluoridated water and dietary fluoride supplements. Water fluoridation offers regular and constant contact with low levels of fluoride. All water includes some fluoride, and some groundwater and natural springs can have naturally high levels. However, many water won’t have enough naturally occurring fluoride to prevent tooth decay. Lots of cities and counties will include and adjust the levels of fluoride discovered in their water in order to achieve the optimum preventative advantages. This neighborhood water fluoridation is the most cost-effective technique of delivering fluoride to a large number of people and can decrease dental caries by approximately 25% in children and adults.
Along with a great oral health routine and regular oral visits, fluoride can assist keep your kid’s teeth healthy and strong throughout their lives. But how did we pertain to find its advantages? What resulted in including it in everyday products like toothpaste, or adding it to our water materials? Let’s take a look at the history of fluoride to find out more!
How fluoride wound up in our water system
Like much of modern medicine, fluoride was come across by chance. In the early 1900’s, a dental practitioner by the name of Frederick McKay noticed that practically 90% of the population of a specific Colorado town had mystical brown staining on their teeth. He welcomed fellow dentist G.V. Black to work together with him on discovering the reason for this phenomenon. Through their research study, they discovered that the staining was the result of imperfections in the advancement of the tooth enamel, what is now called fluorosis. They likewise discovered that people affected by this staining were remarkably resistant to dental caries.
Eventually, McKay was able to trace the source of this staining to the local water supply. Thanks to substantial natural fluoride deposits throughout the Western US, the water in this specific Colorado town was specifically rich in fluoride. Nevertheless, it wasn’t till the 1940s that this understanding was used towards strengthening teeth. The Grand Rapids water fluoridation study was a job covering fifteen years, during which scientists monitored the rate of dental caries amongst practically 30,000 schoolchildren. After a decade, they found that the rate of cavities had actually decreased by 60% amongst Grand Rapids children who were born after water fluoridation began. Based on the success of this pilot research study, many states decided to progress with public water fluoridation programs, decreasing the rates of tooth decay among their citizens, and improving their overall oral health. Water fluoridation is affordable, even for small neighborhoods, and saves both households and the healthcare system cash.
Due to the predominance of acid-producing bacteria triggered by our modern diet plan, fluoride has become important to shield the teeth against day-to-day overuse. Currently, about 75% of the US population are served by community water supply which contain enough fluoride to protect their teeth. However, around 100 million Americans still do not have access to water with fluoride. Because it has shown benefits, the United States has set a nationwide objective for 80% of Americans to have water with enough fluoride to prevent dental caries by 2020.
Topical application of fluoride
Water fluoridation programs are an extremely essential approach of enhancing our oral health, however they are still an outcome of the initial research study done by McKay and his coworkers. More recently, scientists have discovered that the protective elements of fluoride are gotten from direct contact with the tooth enamel, toughening it and defending it versus acid. The topical application of fluoride from oral rinses, toothpastes, and professional fluoride treatments has in fact been shown to perform more effectively than the systemic shipment of fluoride through treated water.
A word on fluorosis
Systemic shipment can produce some negative effects at high doses, well above what you would find in public water supplies. Fluoride, like any mineral, can be bad for you if you consume too much. Normally, tarnished patches and brown staining of the tooth enamel are the most common sign of too much fluoride usage.
CDC physician with a client
Keeping your child’s smile strong and healthy with Kid’s Dental Center.
The benefits fluoride attends to children can’t be beat! This assists set them up for a strong, healthy smile throughout their life. For kids ages 1-8, fluoride assists to strengthen the adult teeth that are developing under the gums. For older children, fluoride supports tooth enamel and can assist restore it in particular cases. This results in less and less extreme cavities, less need for fillings and tooth removal, and less dental caries in general. 
Fluorine is estimated to be the 13th-most plentiful aspect in Earth’s crust and is commonly distributed in nature, entirely in the form of fluorides. The vast majority is held in mineral deposits, the most commercially important of which is fluorite (CaF2). Natural weathering of some type of rocks, along with human activities, releases fluorides into the biosphere through what is in some cases called the fluorine cycle.
Fluoride is naturally present in groundwater, fresh and saltwater sources, as well as in rainwater, especially in city areas. Seawater fluoride levels are usually in the series of 0.86 to 1.4 mg/L, and typical 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter). For comparison, chloride concentration in seawater has to do with 19 g/L. The low concentration of fluoride reflects the insolubility of the alkaline earth fluorides, e.g., CaF2.
Concentrations in fresh water differ more considerably. Surface water such as rivers or lakes typically consists of in between 0.01– 0.3 mg/L. Groundwater (well water) concentrations vary a lot more, depending upon the presence of local fluoride-containing minerals. For example, natural levels of under 0.05 mg/L have been detected in parts of Canada however as much as 8 mg/L in parts of China; in general levels seldom go beyond 10 mg/liter.
In parts of Asia the groundwater can consist of dangerously high levels of fluoride, causing severe health problems.
Worldwide, 50 million individuals receive water from water materials that naturally have close to the “optimal level”.
In other locations the level of fluoride is very low, sometimes leading to fluoridation of public water materials to bring the level to around 0.7– 1.2 ppm.
Mining can increase local fluoride levels.
Fluoride can be present in rain, with its concentration increasing considerably upon exposure to volcanic activity or atmospheric contamination stemmed from burning nonrenewable fuel sources or other sorts of industry, especially aluminium smelters.
All greenery consists of some fluoride, which is taken in from soil and water. Some plants focus fluoride from their environment more than others. All tea leaves include fluoride; however, mature leaves contain as much as 10 to 20 times the fluoride levels of young leaves from the same plant.
Fluoride can act as a base. It can integrate with a proton (H+):.
F − + H+ → HF.
This neutralization reaction kinds hydrogen fluoride (HF), the conjugate acid of fluoride.
In aqueous option, fluoride has a pKb value of 10.8. It is therefore a weak base, and tends to remain as the fluoride ion rather than creating a significant quantity of hydrogen fluoride. That is, the following equilibrium favours the left-hand side in water:.
However, upon prolonged contact with wetness, soluble fluoride salts will disintegrate to their respective hydroxides or oxides, as the hydrogen fluoride escapes. Fluoride stands out in this regard amongst the halides. The identity of the solvent can have a significant result on the stability shifting it to the right-hand side, significantly increasing the rate of decay.
Structure of fluoride salts
Salts consisting of fluoride are numerous and adopt myriad structures. Typically the fluoride anion is surrounded by four or 6 cations, as is common for other halides. Sodium fluoride and Sodium chloride embrace the same structure. For substances containing more than one fluoride per cation, the structures typically deviate from those of the chlorides, as illustrated by the primary fluoride mineral fluorite (CaF2) where the Ca2+ ions are surrounded by eight F − centers. In CaCl2, each Ca2+ ion is surrounded by six Cl − centers. The difluorides of the shift metals typically adopt the rutile structure whereas the dichlorides have cadmium chloride structures.
Upon treatment with a standard acid, fluoride salts transform to hydrogen fluoride and metal salts. With strong acids, it can be twice as protonated to provide H2F+
. Oxidation of fluoride gives fluorine. Solutions of inorganic fluorides in water include F − and bifluoride HF − 2. Couple of inorganic fluorides are soluble in water without going through considerable hydrolysis. In terms of its reactivity, fluoride differs substantially from chloride and other halides, and is more highly solvated in protic solvents due to its smaller sized radius/charge ratio. Its closest chemical relative is hydroxide, since both have similar geometries.
A lot of fluoride salts dissolve to provide the bifluoride (HF − 2) anion. Sources of real F − anions are uncommon since the extremely standard fluoride anion abstracts protons from numerous, even adventitious, sources.
Relative unsolvated fluoride, which does exist in aprotic solvents, is called “naked”. Naked fluoride is a strong Lewis base, and a powerful nucleophile. Some quaternary ammonium salts of naked fluoride consist of tetramethylammonium fluoride and tetrabutylammonium fluoride. Cobaltocenium fluoride is another example. However, they all do not have structural characterization in aprotic solvents. Because of their high basicity, lots of so-called naked fluoride sources remain in truth bifluoride salts. In late 2016 imidazolium fluoride was manufactured that is the closest approximation of a thermodynamically stable and structurally defined example of a “naked” fluoride source in an aprotic solvent (acetonitrile). The sterically demanding imidazolium cation stabilizes the discrete anions and safeguards them from polymerization.
At physiological pHs, hydrogen fluoride is typically fully ionised to fluoride. In biochemistry, fluoride and hydrogen fluoride are equivalent. Fluorine, in the form of fluoride, is considered to be a micronutrient for human health, necessary to prevent dental cavities, and to promote healthy bone growth. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) is a known accumulator of fluorine compounds, launched upon forming infusions such as the typical beverage. The fluorine substances decompose into products consisting of fluoride ions. Fluoride is the most bioavailable type of fluorine, and as such, tea is potentially an automobile for fluoride dosing. Around, 50% of absorbed fluoride is excreted renally with a twenty-four-hour duration. The rest can be maintained in the mouth, and lower digestive system. Fasting dramatically increases the rate of fluoride absorption to near 100%, from a 60% to 80% when taken with food. Per a 2013 research study, it was discovered that consumption of one litre of tea a day, can potentially provide the everyday recommended intake of 4 mg each day. Some lower quality brands can supply as much as a 120% of this amount. Fasting can increase this to 150%. The study suggests that tea drinking neighborhoods are at an increased risk of oral and skeletal fluorosis, in the event where water fluoridation is in effect. Fluoride ion in low dosages in the mouth decreases tooth decay. For this reason, it is utilized in toothpaste and water fluoridation. At much greater dosages and regular direct exposure, fluoride triggers health complications and can be toxic. 
What are the functions of fluoride?
One of the primary functions of fluoride is to keep the health of our bones and teeth.
Fluoride plays a key function in forming our teeth, by helping to reinforce our tooth enamel during their growth and advancement. It likewise secures them from dental caries (tooth decay), by acting in the saliva and developing a layer over our teeth to decrease the damage triggered by acids from foods or those produced by oral bacteria.
Fluoride also helps to improve the density and firmness of bones, making them more stable. 
5 foods that contain fluoride
If you ask your dental professional, they’ll have a lot to state about fluoride! That’s since fluoride offers numerous benefits for your oral health. Did you know that fluoride is a naturally happening mineral numerous foods are a source of fluoride? Read on for 5 foods which contain fluoride so you can meet your fluoride needs from natural sources, too.
Grapes, raisins, and wine
Grapes are an exceptional natural source of fluoride, which discusses why raisins include among the greatest concentrations of any food. It’s likewise one of the most versatile foods which contain fluoride. You can eat grapes fresh from the vine, spray raisins on your morning oatmeal, or delight in a fragrant glass of red wine or grape juice. Simply ensure to watch out for sugarcoated in raisins or juice.
The types of fruit that contain fluoride are significantly different and seemingly unlimited. Apples, strawberries, bananas, peaches, watermelon, and cherries are all on the list. It’s best to consume fruit fresh to take pleasure in the maximum advantages of the minerals and other nutrients they use.
Many veggies are likewise a fantastic source of natural fluoride. Spinach and potatoes top the list. Like grapes, potatoes are likewise exceptionally flexible with numerous ways to cut, peel, prepare, and enjoy them.
Shrimp, crab legs, and other seafood not just make for an elegant supper or appetiser on unique events, but they are also a great source of fluoride.
Tea and coffee
The correct amount of fluoride
If you’re wanting to add extra fluoride to your routine, it can be handy to talk with your dental expert about oral products and foods which contain fluoride to assist make sure that you get the correct amount. Fluoride uses numerous benefits for your dental health and your dental professional will more than happy to assist you discover ways to include it to your diet and regular so that you receive the optimum benefits from this remarkable mineral. 
System of action
The avoidance of cavities by topical fluoride is accomplished by different systems. Sodium fluoride kills bacteria that cause caries, such a Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli by interfering with their metabolic activities that lead to the development of lactic acid. Fluoride ions trigger the inhibition of glycolytic and other enzymes involved in bacterial metabolism. It changes the permeability of cell membranes, decreasing the pH in the cytoplasm of the cell, resulting in a reduction in acidity, which is usually implicated in dental caries.
When administered at low topical doses, fluoride in both saliva and plaque and saliva prevent the demineralization of healthy tooth enamel while remineralizing teeth that have previously been demineralized. Sodium fluoride is absorbed by the surface area of hydroxyapatite crystals on the teeth, which are essential for mineralization. This renders the teeth more resistant to demineralization by altering the apatite crystal solubility. Sodium fluoride hinders the demineralization of teeth in a pH-related way. When used in high dosages, in formulas such as the fluoride varnishes or gels, Sodium fluoride forms a layer on the surface of tooth enamel. When the pH of the mouth is lowered due to acid production by bacteria such as S.mutans, fluoride is released, hindering bacterial metabolic process, and after that acts to remineralize the teeth. 
What is fluoride utilized for?
In the context of human health, fluoride is primarily utilized to improve dental health. You can sometimes find it in your regional water system and in numerous over the counter (OTC) items, consisting of:.
- tooth paste
- mouth washes
If you tend to get a lot of cavities, your dental professional may recommend utilizing a prescription mouth wash with fluoride. These rinses generally have a higher concentration of fluoride than OTC options do.
Fluoride is likewise used:.
- in medical imaging scans, such as family pet scans
- as a cleaner
- in pesticides
- to make Teflon, steel, and aluminum items 
All across the United States, fluoride is contributed to public materials of drinking water as a public health procedure to decrease cavities, likewise called cavities. Decisions about adding fluoride to public drinking water are made at the local or state level.
Fluoride supplementation has been discovered to prevent the procedure of dental caries in babies, kids, and adults. Fluoride exerts this useful impact on teeth through direct contact, and it also secures developing teeth that are still below the gums from the ultimate development of cavities.
Fluoride is thought to help avoid tooth decay in 2 ways: By preventing bacterial overgrowth and mineralizing the teeth.
Fluoride to the rescue
It’s largely avoidable, but tooth decay is the most common persistent illness in both kids and grownups in the United States. Still, the number of cases has declined over the last 40 years, and many individuals credit the infusion of fluoride in public drinking water as one contributing aspect.
Avoiding bacterial overgrowth
Fluoride has actually been revealed to decrease the overgrowth of certain bacteria that might play a role in triggering dental caries. Fluoride decreases the pH level in the mouth, making the oral environment more acidic and less congenial to bacteria.
Fluoride has been discovered to hinder the development of three types of oral bacteria: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis.
Mineralization of teeth
Fluoride communicates with the teeth to form a product called fluorapatite, which mineralizes the teeth. Mineralization is a process of chemical hardening, an impact that avoids tooth demineralization (breakdown). Remarkably, while fluorapatite is not a natural element of teeth, it is useful and has actually not been discovered to cause any damage to teeth.
The fluorapatite mineralization triggered by fluoride supplementation likewise helps the teeth resist damage that can be triggered by food, drinks, and bacteria.
In regards to human health and nutrition, fluoride is a trace element, which consists of a reasonably small portion of the body’s composition.
Small however Mighty
Fluoride is thought about a micronutrient, implying that it exists in physical tissues just in small (or trace) amounts, or about 0.1% by volume. 
Fluoride shortage is a condition of the lack quantity of fluoride in the body.
Fluoride is a microelement discovered in trace quantities in the organism. In the body, fluoride comprises the teeth and bones (95% of its overall amount) in the form of calcium fluoride. Fluoride incorporates into the teeth and types and hardens the tooth’ enamels, creates the acid resistance and resistance to germs of the dental cavity. Some scientists suggest that fluoride prevents osteoporosis in ladies in the postmenopausal duration.
Fluoride is the most bioavailable type of fluorine, this form of fluorine is seen in the tea, that makes it essential as a source or fluoride. About fifty percent of fluoride is excreted by the kidneys within 24 hours after the absorption.
Causes and threat factors
Fluoride deficiency might be triggered by the inadequate quantity of the fluoride in the diet. Nevertheless, intake of fluoride in greater amounts may be toxic and lead skeletal fluorosis (usage of 20-80 mg/day).
Fluoride shortage causes the following symptoms:.
- Severely formed or weak teeth;
- Cavities (dental caries);
- Teeth plaques;
- Brittle or weak bones;
- Predisposition to bone fractures;
- Hip fractures in senior;
Sodium fluoride or Sodium monofluorophosphate (fluoride-containing substances) are administered topically and systemically to prevent the tooth decay. These substances may be used to fluoridate water and in the production of oral hygiene items. 
Extreme direct exposure to fluoride has actually been connected to a variety of health problems.
A fluoride material of 0.7 ppm is now thought about best for dental health. A concentration that is above 4.0 ppm could be harmful.
Direct exposure to high concentrations of fluoride during youth, when teeth are developing, can lead to moderate oral fluorosis. There will be tiny white streaks or specks in the enamel of the tooth.
This does not affect the health of the teeth, however the staining might be noticeable.
Breastfeeding babies or making up formula milk with fluoride-free water can assist secure small children from fluorosis.
Children listed below the age of 6 years should not utilize a mouthwash which contains fluoride. Children ought to be supervised when brushing their teeth to guarantee they do not swallow tooth paste.
Excess direct exposure to fluoride can result in a bone illness called skeletal fluorosis. Over several years, this can result in discomfort and damage to bones and joints.
The bones might end up being solidified and less elastic, increasing the threat of fractures. If the bones thicken and bone tissue collects, this can add to impaired joint mobility.
In many cases, excess fluoride can harm the parathyroid gland. This can result in hyperparathyroidism, which includes unrestrained secretion of parathyroid hormonal agents.
Lower calcium concentrations in bones make them more vulnerable to fractures.
In 2017, a report was published suggesting that exposure to fluoride before birth might cause poorer cognitive results in the future.
The researchers measured fluoride levels in 299 women during pregnancy and in their kids between the ages of 6 and 12 years. They checked cognitive capability at the ages of 4 years and between 6 and 12 years. Greater levels of fluoride were connected with lower ratings on IQ tests.
In 2014, fluoride was recorded as a neurotoxin that could be hazardous to child development, in addition to 10 other industrial chemicals, including lead, arsenic, toluene, and methylmercury.
Other health problems
According to the International Association of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT), a company that campaigns against using included fluoride, it may also add to the following health problems:.
- acne and other skin problems
- cardiovascular problems, including arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification, high blood pressure, myocardial damage, heart insufficiency, and cardiac arrest
- reproductive concerns, such as lower fertility and early puberty in girls
- thyroid dysfunction
- conditions impacting the joints and bones, such as osteoarthritis, bone cancer, and temporomandibular joint condition (TMJ)
- neurological problems, possibly leading to ADHD
One evaluation describes fluoride as an “severe electron scavenger” with an “pressing cravings for calcium.” The researchers call for the balance of threats and benefits to be reevaluated.
Severe, high-level exposure to fluoride can result in:.
- stomach pain
- excessive saliva
- nausea and throwing up
- seizures and muscle spasms
This will not result from drinking faucet water. It is just likely to happen in cases of unintentional contamination of drinking water, due, for example to an industrial fire or surge.
It is worth keeping in mind that numerous compounds are hazardous in big quantities but handy in percentages. 
Fluoride tooth paste
Brushing your teeth completely with fluoride tooth paste is among the most effective methods of preventing tooth decay.
A series of toothpastes are offered containing various levels of fluoride. The quantity of fluoride in the toothpaste can be found on the side of television and is determined in parts per million (ppm).
Toothpastes containing 1,350 to 1,500 ppm fluoride are the most efficient. Your dental practitioner might encourage you to use higher-strength tooth paste if you or your child is at particular threat of dental caries.
- Children under 3 years old ought to brush two times daily, with a smear of toothpaste consisting of at least 1,000 ppm fluoride.
- Children in between 3 and 6 years of ages need to brush a minimum of two times daily with a pea-sized amount of toothpaste consisting of more than 1,000 ppm fluoride.
- Adults need to brush a minimum of two times daily with a tooth paste consisting of 1,350-1,500 ppm fluoride.
Do not use mouthwash at the same time as brushing. Utilize it at an alternative time, due to the fact that it removes the fluoride in the tooth paste 
Fluoride dose information
- Mg of fluoride (mg f) daily (2.2 mg tablet of Sodium fluoride consists of 1 mg of fluoride)
- Fluoride supplements are commercially available in the form of drops or tablets. A sample prescription may read:
- Sodium fluoride tablets 2.2 mg
- One tablet each day to be chewed and swished prior to swallowing
- Care: shop out of reach of kids
- Supplements supply a topical in addition to systemic effect. The tablets must be completely chewed and swished in between the teeth before swallowing. The child should not eat or drink for 30 minutes after supplement intake
- Fluoride levels in human breast milk are less than 0.05 ppm no matter drinking water and maternal plasma levels. The professional might want to think about recommending fluoride supplements in solely breast fed babies in optimally fluoridated locations 
What other drugs will affect fluoride?
Some medications can make fluoride much less effective when taken at the same time. If you take any of the following medicines, take your fluoride dosage 1 hour before you take the other medication:.
- An antacid;
- A laxative; or
- A multivitamin or mineral supplement which contains calcium, aluminum, or magnesium.
Other drugs may affect fluoride, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and organic products. Tell your physician about all your present medicines and any medicine you begin or stop utilizing. 
What are warnings and safety measures for fluoride?
- Higher doses are unsafe and can deteriorate bones and ligaments, and cause muscle weak point and nervous system issues. High dosages of fluoride in kids before their permanent teeth come through the gums can cause tooth discoloration
- Toothpaste and fluoride rinses should not be swallowed routinely, especially in kids. It’s a great idea to make sure that kids under six years of age usage only a pea-sized amount of fluoride-containing toothpaste, simply in case they swallow some
- This medication contains fluoride. Do not take luride, karidium, fluoritab, pediaflor, or Sodium fluoride if you are allergic to fluoride or any active ingredients included in this drug
- Keep out of reach of children. In case of overdose, get medical help or get in touch with a poison control center immediately
Hypersensitivity to fluoride, tartrazine, parts of the solution.
Fluoride content in driving water greater than 0.7 ppm.
Low Sodium or sodium-free diets.
1 mg tablet in children under 3 years of age or when drinking water has more than 0.3 ppm.
1 mg/5 ml rinse in kids under 6 years of age.
Greater dosages are hazardous and can compromise bones and ligaments, and cause muscle weak point and nervous system issues. High doses of fluoride in kids before their long-term teeth come through the gums can cause tooth staining.
Toothpaste and fluoride rinses must not be swallowed routinely, especially in children. It’s a great idea to ensure that kids under 6 years of age use just a pea-sized amount of fluoride-containing toothpaste, simply in case they swallow some.
Pregnancy and lactation
Fluoride may be acceptable for use during pregnancy. Either animal research studies reveal no threat however human research studies are not offered or animal studies showed small risks and human studies were done and showed no risk.
Fluoride is safe during breastfeeding when utilized in dosages listed below 10 mg each day or elemental fluoride; it is safe in quantities discovered in toothpastes, mouth rinses, and fluoride dental treatments. 
All organisms are exposed to fluoride from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Extremely high intakes have been observed in locations worldwide in which the environment is rich in fluoride and where groundwater high in fluoride is consumed by people. Increased exposure might take place in the vicinity of point sources. Fluoride in oral items is an additional source for many people.
Fluoride has both helpful and harmful impacts on human health, with a narrow variety between the consumption at which these take place.
Impacts on the teeth and skeleton may be observed at direct exposures below those related to the advancement of other organ- or tissue-specific negative health impacts.
Results on the bone (e.g., skeletal fluorosis and fracture) are thought about the most appropriate outcomes in examining the adverse results of long-term exposure of human beings to fluoride.
Skeletal fluorosis is a crippling special needs that has a significant public health and socioeconomic impact, affecting countless individuals in various regions of africa, china and india.
Intake of fluoride in water and foods items is the main causative factor for endemic skeletal fluorosis. In some areas, the indoor burning of fluoride-rich coal likewise acts as an essential source of fluoride.