Table of Contents
Chloride is an ion, particularly, since it has an unfavorable charge, an anion. It forms from the aspect, chlorine. The distinction in between an ion and an element is that an aspect (and a substance) has a balanced charge while ions do not. One extremely common compound (balanced charges) of chlorine is sodium chloride (common salt). When sodium chloride is liquified in water, the sodium forms a positively-charged ion (a cation) and the chlorine forms the negatively-charged chloride anion.
Chloride exists in rainwater, streams, groundwater, seawater, wastewater, metropolitan overflow, humans (our blood is rather salted), geologic developments, and animal waste streams. Chloride is likewise present in your kitchen area table in the salt shaker (sodium chloride). We mine large salt deposits for road salt and water treatment salt based chemicals and likewise you abandon salt mines to keep gas (source) and even store nuclear waste. Chloride is typically associated with other ions, such as sodium, potassium, carbonates, and sulfate (sea water has loads of all of these). Raised chloride levels can be connected with oil/ gas drilling, saltwater invasion, garbage dump leachate, fertilizers, septic system effluent, roadway salt storage, salt mining, deicing representatives, and saline/brine water deposits. High levels of chloride can assault and weaken metallic piping and fixtures (it promotes deterioration) and hinder the development of vegetation.
Water is considered to be fresh at < <500 mg/l of dissolved salts. It is brackish water from 500 to 30,000 mg/l (3%), saline (like sea water) from 3-5%, and brine from 5 to ~ 28% at which concentration the water is saturated; anymore would precipitate out of solution. These descriptions are based upon the salinity of the water that includes all dissolved salts. It is usually the case, however, that it is the chloride anion, especially at higher concentrations, that dominates. Chlorinity, instead of salinity, refers to the concentration of simply the chloride. Chloride or salt water solutions are utilized to produce chlorine gas and deicing agents and potassium chloride is a typical fertilizer. 
Occurrence in nature
In nature, chloride is discovered mainly in seawater, which has a chloride ion concentration of 19400 mg/liter. Smaller quantities, though at greater concentrations, occur in specific inland seas and in below ground brine wells, such as the fantastic salt lake in utah and the dead sea in israel. A lot of chloride salts are soluble in water, hence, chloride-containing minerals are typically just discovered in abundance in dry climates or deep underground. Some chloride-containing minerals consist of halite (sodium chloride nacl), sylvite (potassium chloride kcl), bischofite (mgcl2 ∙ 6h2o), carnallite (kcl ∙ mgcl2 ∙ 6h2o), and kainite (kcl ∙ mgso4 ∙ 3h2o). It is likewise discovered in evaporite minerals such as chlorapatite and sodalite.
Function in biology
Chloride has a significant physiological significance, that includes policy of osmotic pressure, electrolyte balance and acid-base homeostasis. Chloride exists in all body fluids, and is the most plentiful extracellular anion which accounts for around one third of extracellular fluid’s tonicity.
Chloride is a necessary electrolyte, playing a crucial role in preserving cell homeostasis and transferring action potentials in neurons. It can flow through chloride channels (consisting of the gabaa receptor) and is carried by kcc2 and nkcc2 transporters.
Chloride is generally (though not constantly) at a greater extracellular concentration, causing it to have an unfavorable turnaround capacity (around − 61 mv at 37 ° c in a mammalian cell). Characteristic concentrations of chloride in model organisms are: in both e. Coli and budding yeast are 10– 200 mm (dependent on medium), in mammalian cells 5– 100 mm and in blood plasma 100 mm.
The concentration of chloride in the blood is called serum chloride, and this concentration is controlled by the kidneys. A chloride ion is a structural element of some proteins; for instance, it is present in the amylase enzyme. For these functions, chloride is one of the necessary dietary mineral (noted by its aspect name chlorine). Serum chloride levels are primarily managed by the kidneys through a range of transporters that exist along the nephron. The majority of the chloride, which is filtered by the glomerulus, is reabsorbed by both proximal and distal tubules (majorly by proximal tubule) by both active and passive transport.
The structure of sodium chloride, revealing the propensity of chloride ions (green spheres) to connect to numerous cations.
The presence of chlorides, such as in seawater, considerably aggravates the conditions for pitting deterioration of many metals (including stainless steels, aluminum and high-alloyed materials). Chloride-induced deterioration of steel in concrete cause a local breakdown of the protective oxide form in alkaline concrete, so that a subsequent localized corrosion attack occurs.
Increased concentrations of chloride can trigger a number of environmental effects in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. It may add to the acidification of streams, activate radioactive soil metals by ion exchange, impact the mortality and recreation of aquatic plants and animals, promote the invasion of saltwater organisms into previously freshwater environments, and hinder the natural mixing of lakes. Sodium chloride has actually likewise been revealed to alter the structure of microbial types at fairly low concentrations. It can likewise hinder the denitrification procedure, a microbial procedure important to nitrate removal and the preservation of water quality, and prevent the nitrification and respiration of raw material. 
What are the functions of chloride?
Chloride is involved in many of our physical functions. Comparable to sodium and potassium, chloride produces particular channels in the membranes of our cells which assist to bring different essential tasks.
For instance, chloride channels are key in managing the quantity of water and the type of compounds and nutrients that go in and out of cells. In general, they play an essential function in keeping the balance of our bodies’ fluids (hence, assisting to control our blood pressure) as well as the ph.
Chloride is likewise essential to assist the muscles and heart agreement and to assist our afferent neuron bring messages (nerve impulses) in between the brain and the body. More so, this mineral is needed to assist red blood cells exchange oxygen and co2 in both the lungs (taking up oxygen and launching co2) and other parts of the body (delivering oxygen and using up co2).
Finally, chloride likewise plays a role in the food digestion of foods, by supporting the production and release of hydrochloric acid (hcl) in the stomach, without which foods might not be effectively digested and soaked up. 
Chloride is discovered in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in lots of vegetables. Foods with higher quantities of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives.
A lot of americans probably get more chloride than they require from table salt and the salt in ready foods. 
What does your body use sodium chloride for?
Nutrient absorption and transport.
- Amino acids (building blocks of protein)
Chloride, when it’s in the kind of hydrochloric acid (hydrogen and chloride) is also a part of gastric juice. It assists your body absorb and absorb nutrients.
Maintaining resting energy
It’s also how nerves send signals to the brain, your muscles contract, and your heart functions.
Preserving blood pressure and hydration
Your kidneys, brain, and adrenal glands collaborate to manage the amount of sodium in your body. Chemical signals stimulate the kidney to either hold on to water so it can be reabsorbed into the blood stream or eliminate excess water through the urine.
When there’s excessive sodium in your bloodstream, your brain signals your kidneys to release more water into your blood flow. This causes an increase in blood volume and high blood pressure. Reducing your sodium intake can result in less water being taken in into the bloodstream. The outcome is a lower high blood pressure. 
Chloride’s function in fluid balance
Chloride aids in fluid balance generally because it follows sodium in order to keep charge neutrality. Chloride channels also play a role in regulating fluid secretion, such as pancreatic juice into the small intestine and the circulation of water into mucous. Fluid secretion and mucous are very important for a lot of life’s procedures. Their significance is exhibited in the signs and symptoms of the genetic disease, cystic fibrosis.
Cystic fibrosis (cf) is one of the most prevalent acquired illness in individuals of european descent. It is brought on by an anomaly in a protein that transfers chloride ions out of the cell. Cf’s symptoms and signs include salted skin, bad food digestion and absorption (leading to poor growth), sticky mucus build-up in the lungs (triggering increased susceptibility to respiratory infections), liver damage, and infertility.
Other functions of chloride
Chloride has several other functions in the body, most significantly in acid-base balance. Blood ph is maintained in a narrow range and the variety of favorably charged substances amounts to the variety of negatively charged compounds. Proteins, such as albumin, along with bicarbonate ions and chloride ions, are negatively charged and aid in keeping blood ph. Hydrochloric acid (a stomach acid composed of chlorine and hydrogen) aids in food digestion and likewise avoids the growth of undesirable microbes in the stomach. Immune-system cells require chloride, and red cell use chloride anions to get rid of co2 from the body. 
Chlorine (cl) is a gas that does not exist in a totally free state in nature. However its salt, chloride, is among the minerals important to the body. The body of an adult contains about 8.4 g of chloride. It is primarily discovered in liquids such as lymph, blood, gastric juices and also in cerebrospinal fluid.
The roles of chlorine in the body
Much better called salt in our daily lives, chlorine has gustatory virtues. In particular, it allows muscles to contract, enhances digestion and promotes heart beat. It is likewise known for its capability to regulate blood circulation and make sure the transmission of nerve impulses.
The body takes in chlorine with sodium along the digestion tract. This trace element preserves the osmotic pressure in the cells. Integrated with sodium, it makes sure the stability of the membrane structure.
Chlorine is involved in the development of stomach juices that promote the food digestion of food. As such, it operates in collaboration with hydrogen.
At the level of the blood system, chloride promotes the transport of co2 in the blood. It also provides the acid-base balance in the body.
Chlorine is likewise the primary element of the fluid that surrounds the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid.
What is the difference in between chlorine, chloride and sodium?
Chloride is the state in which chlorine is present in the body through its salt, i.e. Sodium chloride. 
What is hypochloremia?
Hypochloremia is when you have a low level of chloride in your blood. This could be due to a wide array of conditions.
What is chloride?
Chloride is a vital electrolyte. Electrolytes are minerals that are found in your blood.
These electrolytes aid with:
- Muscle function
- Nerve function
- Keeping the ph of your blood in the typical variety
- Keep your balance of fluids
- You get the majority of your chloride in the form of sodium chloride, or salt, in the food you consume.
Compared to the other electrolytes, there have been couple of research studies on chloride problems. Critical care units typically see irregularities in electrolytes and ph levels, so research study on chlorides has been carried out because setting. A research study discovered that amongst people in intensive care units, about 8.8% had low chloride levels.
In individuals who are seriously ill, abnormal chloride levels are connected to more serious phases of health problems. However the exact factor is unknown.
Symptoms of hypochloremia
There normally aren’t any signs or signs of hypochloremia. But there may be associated symptoms from underlying reasons for hypochloremia.
Symptoms of electrolyte imbalance consist of:
- Problem breathing
Hypochloremia frequently appears together with hyponatremia, which is when your blood sodium levels are low.
Causes of hypochloremia
Since you get chloride from salt, it’s uncommon to be nutritionally lacking in chloride. In healthy individuals, chloride is usually absorbed in your gut. Then it’s transported in your blood and distributed to your tissues.
Your kidneys maintain your body’s overall chloride levels. Problems with your kidneys can lead to an abnormal chloride level in your body.
Hypochloremia can be caused by:
- Extreme sweating
- Kidney problems
Persistent respiratory acidosis, which is when your body can’t get rid of all the carbon dioxide it produces
Syndrome of unsuitable antidiuretic hormone excretion (siadh), when your body makes too much antidiuretic hormones. These hormones assist manage the amount of water in your body.
Metabolic alkalosis, which is when your body’s ph level becomes too alkaline
Use of certain medications like corticosteroids, diuretics, laxatives, and bicarbonates
Cancer treatment. Chemotherapy is typically used to deal with cancer. But chemotherapy drugs may trigger an electrolyte imbalance in your body. Some side effects of chemotherapy may not show up till months or years after treatment. One of these is kidney issues, which can trigger hypochloremia. 
Reasons for low chloride levels
Extreme chloride loss
Blood chloride levels can drop if it is excreted in extreme quantities through the kidneys or through the digestion system.
Through the kidneys, this is because of:
- Excessive use of diuretics
- Genetic defects of electrolyte channels in the kidneys (e.g., bartter’s and gitelman syndromes)
- High concentration of co2 in the blood with increased bicarbonate consumption (breathing acidosis)
- Excess levels of the hormone aldosterone in blood
Through the gastrointestinal system, this is because of:
- Regular throwing up
- Abuse of laxatives
- Stomach pumping
- Evacuation through a surgical opening of completion of the bowel through the stubborn belly (ileostomy)
- Narrowing of the opening of the stomach into the bowel
- Watery diarrhea
- Secretion through growths in the bowel (mckittrick-wheelock syndrome)
- Excessive chloride loss– possibly due to throwing up, watery diarrhea, laxative abuse, or other health concerns– can cause low chloride blood levels.
Inadequate chloride consumption
The suggested minimum everyday intake of chloride is 2.3 g. Since the typical adult takes in 5.8-11.8 g/day, chloride malnutrition is really uncommon.
A soy-based formula with very low chloride content (0-2 meq/l) triggered low blood chloride levels and metabolic alkalosis in children in a research study on 13 people. It likewise took place in 4 out of 153 babies with moms with eating disorders.
Likewise, a liquid dietary product for individuals with severe specials needs triggered chloride deficiency in a research study on 59 people.
Cystic tissue scarring is a genetic syndrome that triggers low blood chloride levels since it is not soaked up through the kidneys and bowel
Although exceptionally unusual, inadequate dietary chloride intake is a possible reason for low chloride blood levels.
Excess fluid intake
Infusion with high volumes of low-salt fluids minimizes the concentration of electrolytes (consisting of chloride) in the blood.
People with congestive heart failure maintain big amounts of fluids and develop resistance to diuretics, which causes low blood chloride levels.
The extreme release of the antidiuretic hormonal agent vasopressin causes an increased return of water to the blood circulation by the kidneys and hence decreases electrolyte levels.
High volumes of watered down, low-salt fluids can reduce the levels of chloride and other electrolytes in the blood.
Metabolic alkalosis (high blood ph) is a result of:
- Increased bicarbonate production/intake
- Reduced bicarbonate excretion
- Loss of hydrogen ions
- Some causes of metabolic alkalosis consist of
- Medications, like diuretics that increase urination of hydrogen ions
- Kidney issues that minimize the urination of hco3-
- Taking a lot of antacids
The loss of a favorably charged electrolyte (hydrogen) and/or accumulation of an adversely charged electrolyte (bicarbonate) promotes the removal of chloride to balance favorable and unfavorable charge.
Infusion or intake of high volumes of sodium bicarbonate causes blood alkalosis and might lead to chloride being exchanged for bicarbonate to keep blood neutrality.
Because the blood concentration of favorably charged electrolytes should equal that of adversely charged electrolytes, conditions that trigger the loss of sodium and potassium typically result in low blood chloride levels.
Low chloride levels and genes
The following hereditary conditions are connected with unusually low chloride levels.
Bartter’s syndrome is an uncommon inherited flaw of the kidney cells in the part of the kidney that reabsorbs electrolytes (loop of henle) and is identified by:
- Potassium losing
- Low blood chloride levels
- Metabolic alkalosis (high blood ph)
- High blood renin levels
- High aldosterone secretion
- Typical high blood pressure
- High urine prostaglandin levels
- Regular need to consume and urinate
The syndrome is brought on by anomalies in the na+/ k+/ 2cl- cotransporter 2 (nkcc2), as well as in the following associated proteins:
- Romk (a protein that moves potassium out of the cells)
- Clc-kb (a protein that moves chloride out of the cells)
- Casr (a protein that spots calcium levels and utilizes them as a signal to activate electrolyte transporters)
Gitelman’s syndrome is a hereditary disease with similar signs to bartter’s (metabolic alkalosis with low potassium, low chloride, high renin, and high aldosterone levels in the blood), but due to flaws in the kidney cells of a different area (distal complicated tubule). The condition is brought on by mutations in the na+/ cl- cotransporter (ncct).
Cystic tissue scarring
Cystic tissue scarring is a genetic disorder identified by the following signs:
- High salt concentration in sweat
- Mucous accumulation
- Frequent lung diseases
- Damage in the airways
- Frequent coughing
- Pancreatic failure
- Advancement of diabetes
- Low bone mineral density
- Kidney failure
- Inability to grow and gain weight (in kids)
- Blood clot disorders
Addison’s disease is a rare hereditary condition in which the glands above the kidneys are defective and produce low levels of the hormonal agents cortisol and aldosterone. The primary symptoms of this disorder are:
- Generalized weakness and tiredness
- Anorexia nervosa
- Craving for salt
- Darkening of skin locations
- Low high blood pressure
- Low blood levels of sodium and chloride
- High blood levels of potassium
Addison’s illness is due to mutations in:
- Aire (a gene causing autoimmune diseases in several organs)
- Abcd1 (a protein that transports fatty acids)
- Dax-1 (a protein that guarantees the right advancement of the kidneys and glands above them).
- Aladin (a protein of the nuclear envelope)
Hereditary chloride diarrhea
Genetic chloride diarrhea is an uncommon genetic disease defined by the production of watery diarrhea with high chloride concentration. It causes dehydration, metabolic alkalosis, and low levels of blood chloride, sodium, and potassium. The condition is because of flaws in the bowel chloride and bicarbonate transporter slc26a3.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis
This syndrome is identified by decreased water elimination, continued production or action of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, and low blood sodium and chloride levels.
The illness is triggered by triggering anomalies in the vasopressin receptor avpr2, which results in the extreme build-up of water.
Consequences of low chloride levels
Low chloride levels and death rate
A relationship between low blood chloride levels and increased death rate has been demonstrated in a number of research studies on:
- Over 9000 healthy individuals
- Almost 6000 people with heart failure
- Practically 1500 critically-ill individuals
- Over 3000 people recovering from a stroke
- Practically 300 individuals with excessive blood pressure inside the lung vessels
Likewise, low blood levels of chloride, sodium, and albumins due to poor nutrition minimized the survival of hiv patients taking antiretroviral treatment in a research study on over 600 african women.
Low chloride levels and kidney function
The occurrence of kidney injury increased in clients with low blood chloride levels in a study on over 13000 individuals undergoing contrast-enhanced tomography.
In another research study on over 6000 seriously ill individuals, low blood chloride was a risk factor for the development of kidney injury. 
How do you detect hypochloremia?
The diagnosis of hypochloremia is made on the basis of the client’s history of the disease or medication causing the imbalance, together with the lab assessment of chloride values. A chloride blood test is performed to identify unusual concentrations of chloride. As hypochloremia co-exists with other electrolyte imbalances such as hyponatremia, hypokalemia (low potassium), blood tests for other electrolytes are also carried out to evaluate for a variety of conditions. When serum chloride is less than 95 meq/l, the client is considered to have hypochloremia.
If an electrolyte imbalance is identified during the tests, your doctor may recommend electrolyte testing at routine periods to keep an eye on the efficiency of treatment, until the outcomes are within the normal variety. If an acid-base imbalance is suspected, they may think about carrying out tests for blood gases to additional evaluate the severity and reason for the imbalance. Occasionally, a urinary chloride test is performed to evaluate the reason for loss of salts, such as in cases of extreme vomiting, dehydration, or use of diuretics where urinary chloride would be very low. Excess of specific hormones such as aldosterone or cortisol can also affect electrolyte levels.
How do you deal with hypochloremia?
Treatment is targeted at treatment for the underlying condition. Client is typically administered diuretics, or replacement of electrolytes with chloride salts to compensate for the loss of chloride from the body. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) are used in clients when the condition is caused due to a particular acquired condition (bartter syndrome) that causes an imbalance in electrolytes. Hydrochloric acid (hcl) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may be used in some intense situations. 
What is hyperchloremia?
Hyperchloremia is an electrolyte imbalance and is shown by a high level of chloride in the blood. The normal adult value for chloride is 97-107 meq/l.
Chloride is an essential electrolyte and works to guarantee that your body’s metabolism is working properly. Your kidneys control the levels of chloride in your blood. Therefore, when there is a disturbance in your blood chloride levels, it is often related to your kidneys. Chloride assists keep the acid and base balance in the body.
Causes of hyperchloremia:
Reasons for hyperchloremia might include:.
- Loss of body fluids from prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, sweating or high fever (dehydration).
- High levels of blood sodium.
- Kidney failure, or kidney conditions
- Diabetes insipidus or diabetic coma
- Drugs such as: androgens, corticosteroids, estrogens, and certain diuretics.
Lots of people do not see any symptoms of hyperchloremia, unless they are experiencing really high or extremely low levels of chloride in their blood.
Dehydration, fluid loss, or high levels of blood sodium might be kept in mind.
You may be experiencing other types of fluid loss, such as diarrhea, or vomiting when experiencing hyperchloremia.
You might be a diabetic, and have poor control over your blood sugar level levels (they may be really high). 
What’s the relation to chemotherapy?
Individuals undergoing chemotherapy may end up being nauseated or vomit, leading to dehydration that causes hyperchloremia.
Chemotherapy can likewise harm the kidneys, harming their capability to preserve the body’s balance of electrolytes. People taking chemotherapy drugs that damage the kidneys may require routine electrolyte tests.
As chemotherapy can damage the body, individuals with hyperchloremia who are undergoing chemotherapy might experience more extreme symptoms.
An individual should keep their physician notified of any symptoms they experience, especially if they suddenly become worse.
Drinking frequently, while avoiding alcohol or caffeine, may assist to treat hyperchloremia.
For the most part, a diagnosis of hyperchloremia will need extra testing to reveal the cause.
Bloodwork may reveal a problem with the kidneys or liver. Individuals must likewise supply their physicians with details about their diet, specifically if they consume big amounts of salt.
Because some medications can change chloride levels, it is essential that individuals inform their physician about all the medications they are taking, including organic supplements and non-prescription drugs.
It might be necessary to resolve an underlying medical condition, such as liver cirrhosis, initially. Individuals who have problems with their endocrine system– a group of glands that produce hormones– may require hormone treatments or an assessment with an endocrinologist.
Some treatment choices consist of:.
- Taking medications to prevent queasiness, throwing up, or diarrhea
- Altering drugs if they are a factor in the electrolyte imbalance
- Drinking 2– 3 quarts of fluid every day
- Getting intravenous fluids
- Eating a much better, more well balanced diet
- Treating underlying psychological health problems if an eating disorder is the offender
- Avoiding alcohol, caffeine, and aspirin
- Getting much better control over blood glucose levels, considering that unchecked diabetes can trigger electrolyte imbalances
- Trigger treatment can avoid severe side effects, so individuals who experience signs of hyperchloremia need to inform their doctor instantly.
Hyperchloremia can be difficult to prevent, particularly when it is caused by a medical condition such as addison’s disease. For people who are at risk of establishing hyperchloremia, some strategies that might help consist of:.
- Talking with a medical professional about medications that can cause hyperchloremia.
- Discussing options for reducing the impacts of drugs that can trigger hyperchloremia. For example, a person might need to drink more water or receive iv fluids when they feel dehydrated.
- Eating a well balanced diet plan, and avoiding severe food constraints.
- Taking diabetes medications exactly as a doctor recommends.
In otherwise healthy individuals, hyperchloremia is very unusual. Merely drinking enough fluid and avoiding excessive salt consumption can avoid this electrolyte imbalance. 
Dosages for chloride, as well as other nutrients, are supplied in the dietary reference consumption (dris) developed by the food and nutrition board at the national academies of sciences, engineering, and medication. Dri is a term for a set of reference intakes that are utilized to prepare and assess the nutrient consumption of healthy people. These worths, which differ by age and sex, consist of:.
Advised dietary allowance (rda): the average daily level of intake that suffices to satisfy the nutrient needs of nearly all (97% to 98%) healthy individuals. An rda is a consumption level based on clinical research study proof.
Sufficient intake (ai): this level is developed when there is not enough scientific research proof to establish an rda. It is set at a level that is believed to make sure sufficient nutrition.
Dietary referral consumption for chloride:.
- 0 to 6 months old: 0.18 grams per day (g/day)
- 7 to 12 months old: 0.57 g/day
- 1 to 3 years: 1.5 g/day
- 4 to 8 years: 1.9 g/day
- 9 to 13 years: 2.3 g/day
Teenagers and adults (ai)
- Males and women, age 14 to 50: 2.3 g/day
- Males and women, age 51 to 70: 2.0 g/day
- Males and women, age 71 and over: 1.8 g/day
- Pregnant and breast feeding females of all ages: 2.3 g/day 
Drug interactions consist of: none reported.
Nutrient interactions consist of:.
The three things to keep in mind about chloride are:.
- Chloride adds to the regular functioning of the digestion system in the stomach.
- You can cover your daily needs of chloride through table salt or foods like prawns, celery and lettuce, which naturally contain chloride.
- It’s currently uncertain what too much chloride alone does to your health. Nevertheless, a lot of the foods that contain chloride also contain sodium, which is understood to be damaging in excessive quantities. To prevent the unfavorable health results associated with high sodium consumption, prevent having more than 5 grams of salt daily. 
Chloride, chemical substance containing chlorine. A lot of chlorides are salts that are formed either by direct union of chlorine with a metal or by response of hydrochloric acid (a water solution of hydrogen chloride) with a metal, a metal oxide, or an inorganic base. Chloride salts include sodium chloride (common salt), potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and ammonium chloride. The majority of chloride salts are readily soluble in water, but mercurous chloride (calomel) and silver chloride are insoluble, and lead chloride is just slightly soluble. Some chlorides, e.g., antimony chloride and bismuth chloride, decay in water, forming oxychlorides. Many metal chlorides can be melted without decay; 2 exceptions are the chlorides of gold and platinum. Many metal chlorides perform electrical energy when merged or dissolved in water and can be decayed by electrolysis to chlorine gas and the metal. Chlorine kinds compounds with the other halogens and with oxygen; when chlorine is the more electronegative component in the compound, the substance is called a chloride.