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    Luteolin is a yellow crystalline flavonoid extensively present in plant families of pteridophyta, bryophyta, magnoliophyta, and pinophyta. It applies a variety of biological impacts, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. [2]


    Luteolin is the primary yellow color compound that is acquired from the plant reseda luteola, which has been used as a source of the dye given that at least the very first millennium b.c. Luteolin was first isolated in pure form, and called, in 1829 by the french chemist michel eugène chevreul. The luteolin empirical formula was identified by the austrian chemists heinrich hlasiwetz and leopold pfaundler in 1864. In 1896, the english chemist arthur george perkin proposed the right structure for luteolin. Perkin’s proposed structure for luteolin was confirmed in 1900 when the polish-swiss chemist stanislaw kostanecki (1860– 1910) and his students a. Różycki and j. Tambor manufactured luteolin. [3]

    The very best foods with luteolin, according to a nutritional psychiatrist


    Parsley is one of dr. Naidoo’s favorite herbs, considering that it’s an essential source of micronutrients that promote neurological health, with luteolin (and folate) chief among them. “parsley can help to boost mental physical fitness, brain health, energy levels, and total cognition,” she discusses, adding that she loves topping this herb on salads and loading up on parsley-rich chimichurri with grass-fed steak, grilled tofu, or cauliflower.


    This purple leafy vegetable is another terrific source of luteolin, making it a great alternative to utilize as a base for salads and even to substitute for covers and tortillas. “its leaves look like little boats, so i love to make healthy tacos by stuffing a radicchio leaf with other chopped veggies, avocado, and a tidy protein, seasoned with cumin and oregano and a burst of fresh squeezed lime,” dr. Naidoo shares. Taco tuesday with a side of brain-boosting, heart-healthy benefits, anyone?

    Green bell peppers

    Aside from being abundant in luteolin, green bell peppers also pack numerous other bioactive compounds “that exhibit antioxidant, anti-bacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and immunostimulant homes, and antidiabetic, antitumoral and neuroprotective activities,” per a 2021 evaluation in the medical journal molecules. Dr. Naidoo advises eating green bell peppers either “raw and sliced into a vibrant salad, or grilled on colorful skewers along with other seasonal veggies.” Perk points go to those who add these vibrant peppers to the radicchio tacos above.

    Chicory greens

    While i recognize with chicory thanks to new orleans– style coffee (which includes roasting, grinding, and brewing the root of the plant), dr. Naidoo states that their greens can be incorporated into meals comparable to other leafy greens. However, she warns that they have a robust taste profile, so she provides a couple of tips to enjoy them without frustrating your palate. “i recommend adding chicory greens to soups or stews, or sautéing them in avocado oil for a flavorful side meal,” she encourages.


    Whether you prefer your celery raw, cooked, or juiced, this flexible vegetable can assist you improve your intake of anti-inflammatory luteolin. Dr. Naidoo mentions it’s a staple in numerous nutritious soup recipes (in fact, i’m slow-cooking a hearty chicken soup loaded with chopped stalks of it today), and that it likewise pairs well with hummus or almond butter for a healthy, hydrating, and crunchy treat.


    As if we needed another reason to love this autumn dietary staple, pumpkin also occurs to be a good source of luteolin. “i enjoy roasting pumpkin and pureeing it into a warming soup with earthy spices like cinnamon and clove,” states dr. Naidoo. In the off season, you might likewise wish to snack on a handful of pumpkin seeds or incorporate them into any variety of dishes, as they consist of small amounts of this inflammation-busting flavonoid.


    Last on dr. Naidoo’s go-to list of luteolin foods is kohlrabi, a cruciferous vegetable comparable in taste to broccoli stems. “kohlrabi is a favorite veggie of mine; i love to clean it and cut up pieces to chew on,” she shares. You can also blend it into salads or enjoy it steamed, stir-fried, or grilled as part of larger meals. [4]

    Mechanism of flavonoid action

    Luteolin prevents several signaling actions including pi3k, nfκb, pkcθ, stat3, and intracellular calcium ions. Flavonoids likewise hinder mc degranulation by engaging with distinct vesicle-dependent snare complexes. It was recently reported that particular flavonoids inhibited cytokine expression in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell by disrupting il-33 signaling.

    Flavonoids can also inhibit acetylcholinesterase, which will increase acetylcholine and improve memory. It is of interest that luteolin further inhibits release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, while it triggers receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (gaba) independent of gaba, recommending it might also have a calming impact. In fact, benzodiazepines that act by activating gaba receptors were revealed to bind to mcs. [5]

    Prospective benefits of luteolin

    Animal and cell research study (doing not have evidence)

    No clinical evidence supports using luteolin for any of the conditions noted in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research study, which need to guide more investigational efforts. Nevertheless, the research studies listed below must not be interpreted as supportive of any health advantage.

    Remember to consult with a medical professional before taking luteolin supplements. They ought to never be used as a replacement for medical treatment.

    May safeguard the brain and nerves

    Luteolin had the ability to protect the brain and boost nerve advancement in various animal and cell studies by:.

    • Lowering glutamate levels
    • Combating brain inflammation and oxidative tension
    • Supporting neuron development in the hippocampus
    • Avoiding protein anomalies

    Alzheimer’s disease

    Research studies on rats with alzheimer’s illness have confirmed the anti-inflammatory and brain-protecting results of luteolin. It prevented alzheimer’s in animals by improving their cognition, memory, and coordination.

    Luteolin guards human brain cells versus free-radical damage and inflammatory proteins particular to this illness.


    Luteolin may combat depression in mice by securing the nerves in the hippocampus (brain center for feelings and memory) and activating gaba receptors.


    In mice with seizures, luteolin was able to:.

    • Increase glutathione and decrease oxidative mental retardation
    • Increase the useful proteins– bdnf and creb
    • Reverse cognitive disability
    • Avoid seizures and decrease their intensity


    Luteolin revealed comparable protective results in mice with various neurological conditions. As a result, it decreased the signs of:.

    • Parkinson’s illness
    • Brain injury
    • Multiple sclerosis

    Animal research recommends that luteolin might play a role in mental health, however human research is doing not have.

    Antimicrobial homes

    Bacterial infections

    The cell wall of gram-negative bacteria contains lipopolysaccharides (lps), which can activate severe inflammation in our bodies and cause different symptoms of a bacterial infection.

    In research studies on mice, luteolin blocked lps-induced swelling and protected the animals versus deadly infections. It was able to increase survival by approximately 44%.

    Luteolin prevented lps-induced eye infection in rats by inhibiting inflammatory molecules (tnf-alpha, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin-e2). It was as reliable as a corticosteroid drug, prednisolone.

    Cell studies have verified the potential of luteolin to reverse the inflammation triggered by lps. It blocked inflammatory enzymes such as inos and cox-2.

    Luteolin avoided breast inflammation (brought on by s. Aureus) and lung swelling (triggered by c. Pneumoniae and chlamydia) in mice.

    Viral infections

    In mice, luteolin inhibited the dispersing of epstein-barr virus, preventing nose and throat cancer set off by this infection. It likewise obstructed the hepatitis b virus, which might trigger serious liver damage.

    In a cell research study, luteolin showed potent activity versus japanese encephalitis infection (jev), the leading reason for viral brain swelling.

    Luteolin has some antimicrobial and antiviral activity on direct contact and in mice.

    Heart health

    Cardiovascular diseases still top the list of death causes, claiming 1/4 of lives in the us.

    In studies on rats and their isolated hearts, luteolin was able to:.

    • Enhance heart cells and enhance contractions
    • Support heart enzymes
    • Avoid tissue damage and cell death
    • Safeguard the cells against oxidative stress during a cardiac arrest

    Luteolin reduced inflammation and fat buildup in capillary of mice, securing them versus atherosclerosis or plaque accumulation.

    Luteolin reinforced and stabilized the heart and prevented fat accumulation in blood vessels in rat and mouse research studies.

    Diabetes issues

    In diabetes, high glucose levels ultimately harm capillary, triggering a wide range of diabetes problems. Oxidative tension plays a critical role in these issues.

    Luteolin relieved oxidative damage in diabetic rats, protecting them against:.

    • Diabetic encephalopathy (mental retardation)
    • Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage)
    • Diabetic cystopathy (bladder dysfunction)

    In test tubes, the antioxidant effects of luteolin prevented diabetic osteopathy, or bone degradation.

    In diabetic rats, luteolin protected against issues of diabetes that damage the brain, nerves, and bladder.

    Inflammation and allergic reactions

    In mice, luteolin avoided swelling and allergic response in the lungs and nose by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines: il-4, il-5, and il-13.

    It can likewise support mast cells, which launch histamine and trigger allergic reactions. Due to its anti-inflammatory residential or commercial properties, luteolin is being looked into as a possible complementary treatment for multiple sclerosis.

    Skin protection

    Ever heard recommendations to “consume your sunscreen”? Here’s how it works: when you consume them, antioxidants such as luteolin might protect your skin from the within and avoid uv-induced damage. Still, the exact same may not go for taking supplements.

    Research studies on mice have actually confirmed this impact of luteolin. It reversed skin aging (by blocking mmp-1 expression) and even avoided skin cancer.

    Impacts on testosterone

    In cell-based research studies, luteolin served as an aromatase inhibitor. By obstructing aromatase, it might decrease the conversion of male sex hormones to estrogens.

    In one animal study, researchers have actually integrated luteolin with an aromatase inhibitor drug to reduce its side effects in cancer treatment.

    By blocking aromatase, luteolin may likewise work as a testosterone booster. Still, medical trials have not investigated any of these results, so they remain in the domain of theory till more research appears.

    Luteolin increased testosterone levels and prevented testicle diminishing in rats exposed to strong electro-magnetic (em) fields. Cellular phones are one prospective source of em field direct exposure.

    Luteolin blocks aromatase in cell research studies, but it is uncertain whether it has this effect in humans and even in animals.

    Cancer research

    The findings talked about listed below stem from animal and cell-based research study just. They must assist further research, but you should not translate them as supportive of the actual anticancer results in humans. Luteolin supplements can not avoid or deal with any sort of cancer.

    In research studies on mice and other lab animals, luteolin avoided the growth of:.

    • Prostate cancer
    • Breast cancer
    • Lung cancer
    • Stomach cancer
    • Colon cancer
    • Ovarian cancer
    • Liver cancer

    Cells research studies have included pancreatic and brain cancer to the list of luteolin prospective targets. According to this research study, luteolin could even combat drug-resistant cancer cells and increase the impacts of chemotherapy without significant side effects.

    There is currently no place near sufficient proof to suggest luteolin for the prevention or treatment of cancer, however research is ongoing.

    Limitations and caveats

    Regardless of the promising results of different animal and cell-based research studies, you shouldn’t interpret them as encouraging of any health benefit up until more research study is done.

    Average dietary consumption of luteolin can’t match the doses utilized in preliminary medical research, and the body quickly breaks it down, which is another significant concern. [6]

    Endocrine disrupting activities of the flavonoid nutraceuticals luteolin and quercetin

    Dietary plant flavonoids have actually been proposed to contribute to cancer prevention, neuroprotection, and cardiovascular health through their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and antiproliferative activities. As a consequence, flavonoid supplements are aggressively marketed by the nutraceutical industry for lots of purposes, consisting of pediatric applications, in spite of inadequate understanding of their worth and disadvantages. We show that two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, are promiscuous endocrine disruptors. These flavonoids display progesterone villain activity useful in a breast cancer design but deleterious in an endometrial cancer design. Concurrently, luteolin has potent estrogen agonist activity while quercetin is substantially less efficient. These results highlight the pledge and hazard of flavonoid nutraceuticals and recommend caution in supplements beyond levels achieved in a healthy, plant-rich diet. [7]

    Kids with autism spectrum disorders, who enhanced with a luteolin-containing dietary formulation, show decreased serum levels of tnf and il-6

    Autism spectrum conditions (asds) have been related to brain swelling as indicated by microglia activation, as well as brain expression and increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 (il-6) and growth necrosis aspect (tnf). Here we report that serum levels of il-6 and tnf were elevated (61.95 ± 94.76 pg ml − 1 and 313.8 ± 444.3 pg ml − 1, respectively) in the same mate of clients with raised serum levels of corticotropin-releasing hormonal agent (crh) and neurotensin (nt), while il-9, il-31 and il-33 were not various from controls. The raised crh and nt levels did not alter after treatment with a luteolin-containing dietary formula. Nevertheless, the mean serum il-6 and tnf levels reduced considerably (p= 0.036 and p= 0.015, respectively) at the end of the treatment duration (26 weeks) as compared to levels at the beginning; these reductions were highly connected with children whose behavior improved the most after luteolin solution treatment. Our outcomes indicate that there stand out subgroups of children within the asds that might be identifiable through serum levels of il-6 and tnf which these cytokines may make up unique prognostic markers for a minimum of the useful impact of luteolin solution. [8]

    Luteolin inhibits cell cycle development and induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells through downregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

    Luteolin is a flavonoid, which has actually been thoroughly investigated due to its antitumor effects; however, the hidden mechanisms of its action remain largely unidentified. Today research study intended to investigate the role of luteolin in breast cancer (bc), and checked out how luteolin suppresses the development and causes the apoptosis of bc cells. The mts assay was used to figure out the anticancer activity of luteolin. Colony formation and transwell assays were performed to examine the results of luteolin on cell development and invasion. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were analyzed by circulation cytometry. In addition, western blotting was performed to analyze cellular apoptosis and signaling paths generated by luteolin. The present study revealed that the expansion of the bc cell line mda‑mb‑231 was effectively reduced by luteolin in a dose‑dependent manner. Furthermore, luteolin was exposed to increase apoptotic rates in bc cells. Dose‑dependent cell cycle arrest in s stage was observed following treatment with luteolin in mda‑mb‑231 cells. Mechanistically, luteolin decreased telomerase levels in a dose‑dependent way. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited phosphorylation of the nuclear factor‑κb inhibitor α and its target gene c‑myc, to suppress human telomerase reverse transcriptase (htert) expression, which encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Jointly, the results of today study showed that luteolin may hinder bc cell growth by targeting htert, recommending that the system of htert regulation by luteolin may validate further study regarding its potential as a therapeutic target for bc treatment. [9]

    The dietary flavonoid, luteolin, negatively impacts neuronal distinction

    Luteolin, a polyphenolic plant flavonoid, has been attributed with numerous useful properties like anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory action. Luteolin has been reported earlier to be neuroprotective in designs of spine injury and terrible brain injury and also induces neurite outgrowth in pc12 cells. However, the effect of luteolin on early differentiation, which might be essential for its advantageous impacts, is unknown. In this report, we reveal that luteolin adversely affects early distinction of embryonic stem cells, obstructing the formation of embryoid bodies. At later phases of distinction, luteolin particularly inhibits neuronal distinction, where the expression of early neuronal markers is reduced, whereas luteolin treatment does not hinder expression of meso- and endodermal markers. Even more, in an establishing zebrafish design, luteolin treatment results in less varieties of mitotic cells in the brain. These particular results of luteolin on neuronal differentiation might perhaps be due to its capability to prevent the lysine acetyltransferase, p300, considering that the structurally carefully related p300 non-inhibitor flavonoid, apigenin, does not hinder neuronal differentiation. These outcomes reveal that luteolin worries neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells. [10]

    Side effects

    Luteolin shows many helpful anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, estrogen inhibition and neuro-protective markers.

    This equates to assisting those experiencing persistent illness, autism and even low testosterone.

    Equally crucial, these restorative effects are consulted with little to no negative adverse effects.

    Take home

    Our very first question was how luteolin results levels of testosterone.

    It has been developed that luteolin secures the function of the testes by harnessing its anti-oxidant impacts.

    It likewise contributes to hormonal agent balance by preventing the aromatase enzymes from transforming valuable testosterone to estrogen.

    However, further research in to luteolin has likewise discovered its other qualities.

    It has powerful anti-inflammatory impacts that can eliminate cells to deal with cancer while having the ability to enhance the condition of autism in children.

    All of this protective power from a variety of natural plant, nuts and fruit sources.

    This advantage comes with little to no undesirable negative effects. [11]

    Additional side effects of luteolin

    Luteolin is normally safe to consume. Negative effects might occur in some individuals, specifically those who take the flavonoid in high doses as a dietary supplement, however these are rare and improperly understood. In one mouse research study, luteolin intensified chemical-induced colitis, however whether this applies to individuals remains to be seen.

    A cell line research study recommends that luteolin (and quercetin) “display progesterone villain activity helpful in a breast cancer model but unhealthy in an endometrial cancer design.” However, this is simply a cell line research study, and it only suggests caution with consuming luteolin through supplement, not from a plant-rich diet plan.

    One openlabel pilot research study on children with autism spectrum disorder (aud) suggests that luteolin may have both favorable and unfavorable impacts, as adaptive performance (how well an individual manages common demands in life and how independent they are) improved, however their irritation increased too.

    Talk to your doctor prior to taking luteolin supplements. Like most dietary supplements, luteolin supplements have not received fda approval. In addition, luteolin supplements may not be safe to take if you are taking blood pressure medications, calcium channel blockers and specific other prescription drugs.

    Guideline: the safest method to experience any plant compound is straight from the natural source, not from a pill. [12]

    Realities of luteolin

    Luteolin is a chemical that is categorized as a citrus bioflavonoid. It is a yellow crystal in pure type, which is typical for flavonoids. Luteolin has many usages as a health supplement due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory residential or commercial properties. These homes permit luteolin to scavenge reactive substances containing oxygen and nitrogen, which can cause cellular damage. Extra biological results of luteolin consist of the activation of the dopamine transporter.

    Luteolin is produced by many plants, a lot of which are edible. Significant dietary sources of luteolin include citrus fruits, especially oranges. Broccoli, carrots, celery and green pepper are veggies that likewise consist of luteolin. Herbs with luteolin consist of parsley, peppermint, rosemary and oregano. Peanut hulls are among the most crucial business sources of luteolin. These hulls are an affordable source considering that they’re a by-product of processed peanuts.

    Ethanol reflux is a typical technique of extracting luteolin from peanut hulls. This procedure essentially consists of blending the powdered hulls with 70 percent ethanol to obtain a liquid/solid ratio of 20:1. This mixture is then heated at 85 degrees celsius for a minimum of 1.5 hours. The vapor that comes off the mix is high in luteolin, which can be more concentrated to a high level of purity. [13]


    Interactions between dietary flavonoids apigenin or luteolin and chemotherapeutic drugs to potentiate anti-proliferative effect on human pancreatic cancer cells, in vitro

    The objectives were to assess the capacity of dietary flavonoids apigenin (api) and luteolin (lut) to enhance the anti-proliferative impacts of chemotherapeutic drugs on bxpc-3 human pancreatic cancer cells and to investigate the prospective molecular mechanism of action. Synchronised treatment or pretreatment (0, 6, 24 and 42 h) of flavonoids and chemotherapeutic drugs and different concentrations (0-50 μm) were evaluated using the mts cell expansion assay. Simultaneous treatment with either flavonoid (0,13, 25 or 50 μm) and chemotherapeutic drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-fu, 50 μm) or gemcitabine (gem, 10 μm) for 60 h led to less-than-additive result (p<< 0.05). Pretreatment for 24 h with 13 μm of either api or lut, followed by gem for 36 h was ideal to hinder cell proliferation. Pretreatment of cells with 11-19 μm of either flavonoid for 24 h led to 59-73% growth inhibition when followed by gem (10 μm, 36 h). Lut (15 μm, 24 h) pretreatment followed by gem (10 μm, 36 h), significantly reduced protein expression of nuclear gsk-3β and nf-κb p65 and increased pro-apoptotic cytosolic cytochrome c. Pretreatment of human pancreatic cancer cells bxpc-3 with low concentrations of api or lut efficiently aid in the anti-proliferative activity of chemotherapeutic drugs. [14]

    Indications you might require luteolin

    Poor neurological functions are usually the most substantial indications that you may require luteolin, particularly if you are over the age of 50. These functions consist of memory, learning and motor skills. Signs of oxidative stress such as skin sores and wrinkles are a few of the more visible signs that you might need luteolin. Inflammatory conditions that impact the nervous system are some of the chronic signs that luteolin may benefit you. Auto-immune disorders might likewise imply that you need extra luteolin. [15]

    Why you should take luteolin with pea?

    Luteolin is believed to work very well with pea to combat neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.

    This coadministration has a superior result than use of the molecules alone.

    Pea and luteolin significantly decrease the neuroinflammation and apoptosis paths. They modulate cytokine release and activation of astrocytes and glial cells, which decreases oxidative stress. Pea and luteolin enhance expression of neurotrophic aspects and enhance regrowth of neurons.

    Those that have actually suffered a stroke that were treated with co-pea/luteolin likewise had gains in cognitive function, muscle spasticity enhancement and movement. [16]


    The advantageous homes of luteolin have been understood for many years and are mainly related to the decrease of inflammation and the security of the body from oxidative stress.

    In fact, luteolin belongs of lots of herbs used in traditional chinese medicine to minimize inflammation levels, deal with high blood pressure, and other conditions. [17]


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