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Sandalwood Oil

    A vital oil obtained from sandalwood: such as a pale yellow somewhat thick fragrant liquid gotten from a sandalwood (santalum album) and used chiefly in fragrances and soaps. [1]


    White sandalwood is an evergreen tree. The oil from the wood and the wood are utilized as medicine. Do not puzzle white sandalwood with red sandalwood.

    People utilize white sandalwood for the common cold, bronchitis, vaginal infections, bladder infections, and many other conditions, however there is no good scientific evidence to support these usages.

    In food and drinks, white sandalwood is utilized as a flavoring.

    In production, white sandalwood oil is utilized as a fragrance in soaps, cosmetics, and fragrances. [2]


    At first, sandalwood oil was drawn out in india by unrefined techniques. Prior to world war i, sandalwood from the mysore district was distilled in germany and offered there. Nevertheless, when world war i broke out in 1914, this path of extraction had to be closed down, resulting in a loss of income to the exchequer. Due to this closure to the market, the maharajah of mysore selected alfred chatterton, the director of industries in mysore to establish the distillation of the oil. Chatterton enlisted the assistance of professors j. J. Sudborough and h. E. Watson who extracted the very first sample of sandalwood oil in india at the indian institute of science. In 1916– 17, the sandalwood oil distillery was established in mysore by the then mysore government (now the karnataka government) to distil oil from sandalwood. In 1977, the mysore district had about 85,000 sandalwood trees, and production reported throughout 1985-86 had to do with 20,000 kgs (44,000 lb) of raw sandalwood. To maintain its significance to the economy, according to the government gazetteer, the government introduced special laws and guidelines. In the erstwhile baronial state of mysore (part of karnataka because self-reliance), sandal was a “royal tree”, with the state federal government managing it.

    This oil has been signed up for security under the geographical sign of the trade associated intellectual property rights (trips) agreement. In 2006, it was noted as “mysore sandalwood oil” under the gi act 1999 of the federal government of india, with registration verified by the controller general of patents designs and trademarks. [3]


    Shoe tree grows primarily on red, ferruginous loam overlying metamorphic rocks, chiefly gneiss, and tolerates shallow, rocky ground and stony or gravelly soils, preventing saline and calcareous circumstances. It is not found on the black-cotton soil. The development is luxuriant on abundant and relatively moist soils, such as garden loam and on well-drained deep alluvium along the river banks, but the heartwood from these trees lacks oil. The trees grown on bad soils, particularly on stony or gravelly soil, produce more extremely fragrant wood, offering a much better yield of the oil.

    It replicates from seeds dispersed by birds. Germination is profuse in the forests immediately after the monsoons. For artificial regrowth, it is essential to provide ideal climatic and eco-friendly conditions. For procuring seeds, the fruits are gathered during january– march. Germination is up to 80%. Just after the very first monsoon showers, the sandal seeds are dibbed and protected by thorny bushes. The seeds sprout in about 8– 2 week. The seedlings grow rapidly, that is, as much as 20– 30 cm high, at the end of the first year. [4]

    Production requirements

    Growing areas

    Sandalwood is presently grown in western australia, queensland and the northern territory with trials being performed in brand-new south wales, south australia and victoria.

    Australian sandalwood (s. Spicatum) will grow in low rainfall areas and is not always limited by soil type, however as it requires a host tree, the growing area requires to support both the host and sandalwood trees. Trees belonging to the chosen area are favoured as host trees as they are much better fit and adapted to the environment. Sandalwood can be grown with water from natural rains or under watering, however the added costs of irrigation must be thought about when calculating potential returns. Indian sandalwood (s.album) requires watering as the rains in the north of australia is seasonal and insufficient.

    Soil type

    Since sandalwood is a root hemi-parasite, it needs a host tree for healthy development. The soil type should consider the needs of both trees, more particularly the host. Hosts will alter with soil type and for this reason the native trees of the region are favoured due their suitability and exceptional adaption.

    For s. Spicatum, the preferred soil enter the western australian wheatbelt is a sandy-loam over clay. However, sandalwood will likewise grow on some loamy-gravels, yellow sands and red sands. Moisture retention and schedule at both the surface area and subsurface are very important for the establishment of sandalwood.

    For s. Album, it was thought that a defining quality was the requirement to be in soils that did not draw in termites and therefore the splitting cununurra clays were favoured. This however is being questioned with exceptional growth being obtained in all soil types.


    1. Spicatum (australian sandalwood) will grow in low rains locations in between 400-800mm per year. Equipping rates will depend on rainfall levels, so while sandalwood will grow in locations with less than 250mm of rain per annum, development rates are better in a 400– 600mm rains zone.
    2. Album (indian sandalwood) grows in comparable rainfall as s. Spicatum in kununurra as the area receives 800mm per annum. The difference is that this types is grown with watering. To contrast this, in kerala, india where the types is grown without irrigation, the annual rains is 2800mm + 400mm, suggesting that there is possible to grow this species in higher rainfall areas.


    There are 2 main types of sandalwood grown in australia for oil production, s. Spicatum (australian sandalwood) and s. Album (indian sandalwood). Tree breeding programs have been developed for both of these species and the seed produced will just be utilized in plantation establishment and not in wild harvest, in order to save genetic integrity.

    The relative narrowness of the genetic variety in s. Album compared to other sandalwood species represent the foreseeable oil profile. The wide hereditary variety of s. Spicatum makes the chances for establishing and improving this species a slow but obtainable objective.

    For details on suppliers of sandalwood seed contact the forest products commission.

    Planting and crop management

    Sandalwood trees are root hemi-parasites, suggesting they require host trees for healthy growth. The host trees supply additional water and nutrients to the sandalwood delivered by a special root connection called haustoria. The symbiotic relationship continues throughout the life of the sandalwood tree. In western australia, the best host types are the nitrogen-fixing plants.

    Land preparation is significantly different between s. Spicatum growing in the south-west of western australia compared to today system for s. Album in kununurra.

    In the south-west western australia, in sandy soils and without the requirement for watering, general farming devices can be utilized for preparing the land, managing the weeds and deep ripping. The initial step in plantation establishment is to plant the host trees at 1.6 m intervals (1,250 hosts/ha). Sandalwood seeds can be planted once the host trees are 1– 2 years of ages, or around one metre tall. As soon as adequate soil wetness is achieved, for instance after a rains event, one or two seeds are planted about 2– 3cm below the surface area, at a distance of half a metre far from the host tree.

    Around 2 weeks later, the seed planting area is sprayed with a tear down herbicide guaranteeing no spray touches the host plant. Weed control is vital prior to sandalwood seedlings becoming they are quickly smothered minimizing survival and growth. Sandalwood seeds will take 4– 8 weeks to germinate after excellent rains and normally emerge 3– 4 months after planting.

    When the sandalwood tree is 2 years old, an assessment of its ratio to hosts ought to be undertaken. Sandalwood should have a 1:2 or 1:3 ratio with its host, in other words, 1,000 hosts per hectare will support 400 sandalwood trees per hectare, at 2 years. For s.spicatum tree bole development, regular light pruning is needed to maintain a single stem. Thinning may be needed as the trees-per-hectare requirements to be kept in balance with the presence of hosts and in relation to the water table to prevent tree death.

    Site management thereafter depends upon whether the s. Spicatum sandalwood nut is harvested each year. Seed markets are establishing as the kernel includes lots of fatty acids, particularly ximenynic acid that has excellent dietary and cosmetic uses. For cost-efficient seed harvesting, the plantation floor under the trees requires to be kept reasonably tidy for seed gathering equipment.

    In the case of s. Album, the breaking cununurra clays and the requirement for irrigation makes the silviculture a higher difficulty. As there is no lack of water, the websites can be planted at greater equipping rates. The higher the equipping rate, the less bole wood produced per tree so there is a balance.

    The land preparation is extensive with the website needing laser-levelling due to the flood watering requirement. Even with the introduction of trickle watering, this action has not been dropped from the preparation as flood irrigation may be required at some stage in the rotation. The trees are planted at a distance of 1.8 m multiples apart as this is the agriculture system that the valley has embraced. For s. Album, it is normally planted at 3.6 m apart.

    Album is developed utilizing seedlings. The host requirement to support the complete rotation of this sandalwood is still under investigation. Typically, the plantation system relies upon three hosts, a pot host introduced as the sandalwood seedling is grown in the nursery, a short-term host which passes away after three years and a long-term host which lives together with the sandalwood for the full rotation. The very best short-term and long-lasting hosts have been recognized as nitrogen-fixers, either beans or casuarinas.

    Weeds, bugs, and diseases

    Weed control in plantations is particularly important before planting, to minimize competitors with emerging seedlings and seedling development. Afterwards, the weeds can end up being hosts however need to be kept in balance with the resources (water and light) offered.

    Factor to consider will require to be provided to any insects and diseases of the chosen host tree. The s. Spicatum host, an acacia, can be vulnerable to a series of insects consisting of gall rust, mistletoe, and sap drawing bugs such as aphids. Selection of the acacia species and variety together with a managed planting density can reduce stress and the start of these diseases. Additionally, planting a variety of host plants should guard against the severity of a bug or illness event. [5]

    Sandalwood essential oil utilizes

    You might already be familiar with the restorative residential or commercial properties of other important oils. Every essential oil carries its own unique advantages and sandalwood is no different. Aromatherapy is the practice of using important oils to enhance mental or physical wellness. You can diffuse, inhale or apply necessary oils topically to the skin.

    Many people discover important oils handy for tension management and relaxation. Fragrances are highly connected to our feelings and memories. This is since our scent receptors are located next to the psychological centers in our brain, the amygdala and hippocampus. Scientists think that particular fragrances can help activate soothing or serene feelings. Other oils may connect with particular hormonal agents, neurotransmitters or enzymes, leading to a particular modification to our bodies’ chemistry.

    Sandalwood not just has numerous benefits, however also multiple uses. Generally, it has been a substantial therapeutic agent in traditional chinese medicine and ayurveda due to its recovery homes. In these standard medications, uses of sandalwood oil consist of the treatment of urinary infections, gastrointestinal issues, coughs, depression, as well as infections.

    Sandalwood likewise has a focusing effect comparable to how lavender can be soothing to the body. Sandalwood can assist increase focus, mental clearness and balance.

    Here’s a few methods to try sandalwood necessary oil:.


    Inhale a couple of drops of sandalwood important oil before stretching, barre or yoga class or other relaxing time to help set the state of mind. Use it prior to a quiet time, prayer or journaling to increase your ability to relax and focus.


    The best method to get the mental clearness benefits of sandalwood is to use a couple of drops, about 2– 4, to the ankles or wrists sometimes of high tension or overwhelm throughout the day. You can also straight inhale the oil if you do not wish to use it directly to your skin. Use it in a diffuser to allow everybody in your house to enjoy it. Or add a couple of drops to bath water at the end of a long day.

    For the body

    Using sandalwood oil in skin care items is common. One excellent skin care usage: mix sandalwood oil with a base oil to treat dry skin. Get innovative by blending sandalwood with other essential oils to create your own blend. For instance, mix 4– 5 drops of sandalwood with rose and vanilla oil and adding it to an unscented cream for a romantic, fragrant, woodsy blend.

    Or you can try making your own homemade males’s cologne by blending sandalwood with numerous other necessary oils to create an earthy, manly fragrance. You can also use sandalwood as a base for your own homemade hair conditioner. Sandalwood is an excellent addition to conditioner to assist avoid dandruff.

    Cleansing and home usage

    You can utilize sandalwood necessary oil in the home in various methods:.

    Include a couple of drops to a log before burning it in the fireplace.

    Utilize it in your car by putting 2– 3 drops on the a/c vent to help maintain a calm alertness during rush hour.

    Since sandalwood has antiseptic homes, it can likewise assist decontaminate the washing maker. Add 10– 20 drops per load.

    Include sandalwood oil to a foot bath to promote extra relaxation. [6]

    Health benefits of sandalwood oil

    Sandalwood oil and the paste of sandalwood is used in medications, skin and appeal treatments, and various commercial products including mouth fresheners, edibles, incense sticks, room fresheners, antiperspirants, perfumes, soaps, creams, and creams. It has some truly amazing medical homes, which we will explore in greater detail listed below.


    The vital oil of sandalwood is great as an antibacterial agent. It is safe for both internal and external applications. When consumed, it assists protect internal injuries and ulcers from infections. Similarly, when applied to the skin, it secures wounds, sores, boils, and pimples from developing infections or from ending up being septic.


    Both sandalwood paste and its vital oil are very efficient as anti-inflammatory representatives. A 2016 report published in journal of herbmed pharmacology exposed that indian sandalwood has a nice cooling impact which it offers remedy for all kinds of inflammation in the brain, digestion, anxious, circulatory, and excretory systems that result from infections, fever, negative effects of antibiotics, poisoning, insect bites, or injuries. Sandalwood necessary oil is particularly useful in cases of anxious and circulatory swellings.


    Being a relaxant and sedative in nature, this oil works great versus convulsions. A report released by the department of biology, genetics institute (cgrc), university of florida, U.S.A., sandalwood oil unwinds nerves, muscles, and capillary, thereby ending spasms and contractions. Thus, it is helpful in dealing with issues associated with them such as cramps, aches, and coughs.


    Although it is extremely moderate, this vital oil has some astringent residential or commercial properties which cause contractions in the gums, muscles, and skin. A 2010 report titled, santalum album linn: an evaluation on morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects, exposes that sandalwood oil is understood for its astringent homes that make it helpful as a disinfectant in genitourinary and bronchial tracts, diuretic, expectorant, and stimulant. This shows helpful in regards to strengthening the gums. Furthermore, it also helps in the strengthening of muscles and tightening of the skin.


    The necessary oil of sandalwood soothes the skin and helps scars and areas to recover much faster. It is an old practice to use the paste of sandalwood as a skin pack. The same effect can be obtained by utilizing this essential oil. This oil is now extensively utilized in skincare soaps, creams, and creams.


    Due to its relaxing and anti-inflammatory homes, sandalwood important oil relieves swelling in the urinary system and causes relaxation, thus promoting the easy passage of urine. It likewise increases the frequency of urination and the volume of urine. This assists in dealing with infections and swelling in the urinary system due to the fact that it eliminates dangerous toxic substances through the urine.


    It is the disinfectant residential or commercial property of sandalwood important oil that justifies its broad usage in spiritual ceremonies and cosmetics. Its scent keeps away microorganisms and little bugs, which is why it is extensively utilized in incense sticks, sprays, fumigants, and evaporators to sanitize large areas.

    A 2017 report published in the international journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences suggests that sandalwood oil, amongst its numerous residential or commercial properties, is a disinfectant to the mucous membrane in genitor-urinary and bronchial systems. Furthermore, this oil can be combined with bathing water or other lotions or oils to use on the skin and wounds to guarantee their security from infections. This oil can likewise be safely taken with milk to cure internal infections, such as those of the throat, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and excretory tracts.

    Skin care

    Sandalwood oil soothes the skin, alleviates it from inflammation and irritation, remedies infections and keeps you feeling fresh and cool. Dr. Corey levenson of santalis pharmaceuticals, texas, U.S.A., exposes that sandalwood oil has actually revealed terrific promise in the medical trials for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, eczema, typical warts, and an extreme condition known as molluscum contagiosum.

    Treats coughs

    Sandalwood necessary oil acts as an expectorant and is particularly reliable in treating coughs. It also combats viral infections which initially triggered the cold, cough, influenza, mumps, or any other health problem.


    Sandalwood oil has antiphlogistic homes and gives remedy for inflammation arising from fever and viral infections.

    Lowers high blood pressure

    This is a really beneficial residential or commercial property of sandalwood essential oil. It can be taken with milk or perhaps water to minimize blood pressure in clients struggling with high blood pressure. The paste of sandalwood has the same effect when topically applied to various parts of the body.

    Memory booster

    It enhances memory and stimulates your concentration power. It likewise keeps the brain cool and unwinded and saves you from unnecessary tension and anxiety.

    Sedative impact

    This oil sedates inflammation, anxiety, fear, stress, and uneasyness. Moreover, it induces relaxation, peace, concentration, inner vision, and favorable thoughts.

    Other advantages

    Some people use sandalwood important oil as a deodorant to relieve body odor. [7]

    What are the advantages of sandalwood oil for hair?

    If you pick to utilize sandalwood oil for hair care purposes, you will want to take care not to use it pure directly to your scalp or hair.

    Important oils are more powerful than people sometimes picture, and so using them undiluted can trigger a chemical reaction with your skin, which might lead to extreme irritation if not straight-out burns.

    Utilizing a provider oil or other diluents can assist prevent skin irritation and also offer a moisturizing element to your hair care routine.

    Some oils known for their softening or anti-inflammatory homes include sweet almond oil, apricot kernel oil, castor oil, grapeseed oil, jojoba oil, and coconut oil.

    When using sandalwood oil, a few drops must be sufficient. You’ll want to either mix it into a hair shampoo bottle or provider oil, or utilize it by itself. Each choice has its advantages and disadvantages.

    Using it by itself enables you to truly rub it directly into your scalp in a safely diluted kind. Rubbing sandalwood oil into your scalp also permits you to more easily utilize the oil for hair care treatments while on the go.

    On the other hand, mixing it in with your hair shampoo (or other diluents) can make the procedure a lot simpler– just use it in the shower or within your normal hair care regimen.

    If you wish to utilize this oil to soothe your scalp, attempt mixing a teaspoon of sandalwood oil with a cup of cold-pressed virgin coconut oil. Take this mixture and rub it in as required, however make sure– in some cases individuals can have allergic reactions to essential oils.

    Additionally, you could mix in a teaspoon of almond oil together with 3 to 5 drops of sandalwood oil.

    Lastly, if you wish to attempt to actually draw out the shine in your hair, you’ll want to use a bit more– try three to 7 drops (but don’t go bananas, again, you don’t want to burn your scalp) and apply it to your hair after you’ve showered.

    Sandalwood oil is typically coupled with other hair oils, consisting of olive oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil, sage oil, lavender oil, rosemary oil, and argan oil. Although, you must be imaginative since you aren’t restricted to these mixes. [8]

    Uses of sandalwood oil

    Sandalwood oil can be trusted to take care of various skin issues. Some of the advantages are gone over below–.

    Acne, pimples, and breakouts:

    Sandalwood has antiseptic properties that prevent pimples, acne, and sores from establishing. Nevertheless, daily exposure to dust and dirt may trigger bacterial development on your skin, causing skin problems. The sandalwood oil battles against these acne-causing bacteria.

    Dark spots and dark eyes:

    Enriched with anti-inflammatory & & astringent homes, sandalwood efficiently treats conditions like dark spots and dark eyes. Routine application of sandalwood can reduce these unwanted spots.

    Skin inflammations:

    Sandalwood oil is understood for its anti-inflammatory residential or commercial properties and can cure skin inflammation, itching, and localized rashes. It is also helpful in dealing with skin cuts, injuries, and insect bites. In addition, sandalwood can relieve inflammatory skin problem like eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis.

    Wetness retention:

    Sandalwood oil is extremely mild on the skin and assists in maintaining the moisture level of the skin. It keeps the skin soft, flexible, and hydrated.

    Protects from aging results:

    The day-to-day exposure of the skin to complimentary radicals and various forms of contaminants might cause wrinkles and sagging skin. Sandalwood oil is abundant in anti-oxidants which battle the actions of totally free radicals. In addition, the anti-aging homes of sandalwood oil gradually heal the skin of these early aging impacts (3 ).

    Maintains skin oil balance:

    Sandalwood oil may also assist to keep the oil balance of the skin. But, most significantly, sandalwood oil does not upset or destabilize the oil balance.

    Exfoliates skin:

    Sandalwood has light exfoliating residential or commercial properties and can be utilized to treat skin problems like a suntan.

    Skin infection:

    The anti-bacterial residential or commercial properties of sandalwood oil make it an efficient option for the treatment of skin infections.

    Treatments prickly heat:

    The sandalwood has a calming effect, that makes it an outstanding treatment for heat rashes.

    Big pores:

    Sandalwood works as an astringent, which assists in the tightening up and contraction of tissues and pores. This activity reduces the look of big pores and reduces the occurrence of skin breakouts.

    Sandalwood oil in skincare

    Application of sandalwood oil.

    Direct skin massage:

    The sandalwood oil can be directly massaged on the skin. Nevertheless, some people might have hypersensitive skin and may require dilution of the oil. Adding jojoba oil to the sandalwood oil may avoid negative reactions.

    Massage oil:

    A few drops of sandalwood oil can be contributed to the regular massage oil for whole-body massage. As a massage oil, it works to soothe and hydrate the skin and deal calmness to the mind.

    Steam inhalation:

    This is utilized for 2 reasons– (a) to look after respiratory problems and (b) to deal with facial skin problems like pimples, acne, and breakouts.

    Direction for use
    1. Add a couple of drops of sandalwood oil to steaming water in a bowl.
    2. Position your face over the steam, cover your head, face, and bowl with a clean towel, and inhale the steam.
    3. Inhalation helps to deal with respiratory issues while the oil particles with steam aid to clean up the facial skin and remedy specific skin problems. [9]

    Side-effects and allergies of sandalwood oil

    Sandalwood oil is usually safe for usage, however there are cautions and precautions. Essential oils of are indicated for topical use only, so i do not recommend consuming sandalwood oil. When using it onto skin, dilute it using provider oil, soap, lotion or a buffering representative. Breastfeeding mothers and children must avoid utilizing sandalwood oil.

    Additionally, sandalwood necessary oil may trigger an allergic skin response in particular people, so it is very important to evaluate it on a small location of skin initially. Those who experience some kind of medical condition, such as liver disorder and cancer, need to also take additional safety measure utilizing the oil in aromatherapy.

    Individuals with a known allergic reaction or hypersensitivity to sandalwood oil or its constituents need to avoid using the oil, as there are reports of sandalwood causing dermatitis and sandalwood oil causing image allergy. But there are very few reports of sandalwood oil negative effects– of the offered literature, there are a few cases of the allergic reactions discussed above. [10]


    For the treatment of urological issues, a dosage of 1 to 1.5 g daily is suggested for no more than 6 weeks. It needs to be dosed in a resistant coating that is protected against stomach secretions. The oil ought to not be consumed internally in its natural state. [11]

    Preventative measures to take with sandalwood

    The following precautions and warnings are to be thought about when sandalwood is being utilized:.


    According to animal studies, sandalwood oil might impact the fetus when provided to pregnant females. For that reason, it must not be taken versus the suggestions of the consulting gynaecologist.

    Kidney illness

    Sandalwood should be prevented by individuals struggling with kidney illness as it can trigger kidney damage. [12]


    Sandalwood (santalum album linn.) Is an essential tree species that displays high medical, cosmetic, and commercial value. Indian sandalwood is offered primarily from karnataka and tamilnadu states of india. Due to its broad usages in different markets, wood is high in demand in the international market. The business aspect of sandalwood is being regulated by the forest authorities. It also reveals various usages in cosmetic industries consisting of the manufacturing of charm products, face packs, moisturizers, deal with wash, skin creams, and so on. Sandalwood is an essential requirement in different routines in almost all spiritual events. Sandalwood oil is being typically used in treating numerous diseases and ailments. It shows antioxidant, antiviral, anticancer, antifungal, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity. Aromatherapy is among the crucial medical uses of sandalwood. [13]


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