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Prickly Pear Oil

    Prickly pear seed oil, likewise called bearberry fig oil and indian fig seed oil, is originated from the seeds of the fruit from the prickly pear cactus plant. The cactus from which the fruit grows on is native to the united states, mexico and south america. This silky, lightweight oil is gotten by pushing the small seeds remaining from fruit production, a by-product of the food industry. The oil is typically cold-pressed and unrefined, which suggests that it is not deodorized, decolorized or otherwise dealt with. When choosing the best oil for your face, you must constantly choose unrefined as that helps the oil to retain the majority of its skin useful homes. [1]

    Prickly pear seed oil truths


    Prickly pear seed oil benefits and uses

    Scientific name Opuntia cactus
    Native Prickly pear is native to south america and mexico. It is nutritious and edible cactus which is widely grown in australia, south africa, southern europe and southwestern united states.
    Common/english name Oil of opuntia, cactus seed oil, indian fig oil, barbary fig oil, prickly cactus seed oil, indian fig seed oil, barbary fig seed oil
    Name in other languages of irritable pear Hindi: nagfani;
    telugu: nagajemudu;
    malayalam: kallimullpazham.
    gujarati: dindla
    Method of extraction Cold pressed
    Color Clear-light yellow-green
    Smell Attributes



    Irritable pears are members of the cactacceae or cactus household, that includes about 97 genera and 1,600 types. The types are discovered in europe, mediterranean nations, africa, southwestern united states, and northern mexico. Plants in the genus opuntia choose a dry, hot environment and include perennial shrubs, trees, and creeping plants. Irritable pear can grow 5 to 8 m in height; its roots are shallow, but the plant can spread as much as 40 m in size over the ground. The stems are branched, leaves are cylindrical in shape, and the plant is covered with barb-tipped bristles (known as glochids) that are distinct to opuntia. Its flowers, petals, and sepals are numerous in quantity and color. The oval, pear-shaped, purple fruit is pulpy and sweet however might be covered with spines or bristles. The seeds within the pulp are disk-shaped and have numerous colors.


    The medical parts of the plant are found in the flowers, leaves or pads, and fruit.

    Isorhamnetin-glucoside, kaempferol, luteolin, penduletin, piscidic acids, quercetrin, rutin, and β-sitosterol have been discovered in the flowers of irritable pear. The leaves or pads are abundant in mucilage and consist primarily of polysaccharides which contain galactose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose.

    Prickly pear fruit is high in nutritional worth. Ethanol-soluble carbs are the most plentiful components of prickly pear fruit pulp and skin, comprising 50% of the pulp and 30% of the skin. The betalain substances are accountable for the various colors of the fruit. The skin includes calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, and selenium. The edible pulp contains biothiols, taurine, flavonols, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Nevertheless, industrial processing of juice components results in some loss of vitamins a, e, and c. The seeds are rich in phosphorus and zinc. The oils from the seeds and peel are an excellent source of polyunsaturated fats.

    A number of older chemical analyses of enzymes from opuntia types are readily available. One study files the unpredictable constituents of prickly pear, while another recognizes the constituents of o. Fragilis. Other studies go over the chemistry of irritable pear, including seclusion of albumin amino acid composition in the fruits and fats of the seeds. [3]


    The majority of the plant parts benefit humans and animals both internally and externally and have actually been utilized throughout the world. For instance, in traditional medication, opuntia ficus indica has been used for the treatment of burns. The aztecs drawn out the milky juice from the plant and blended it with honey and egg yolk to supply a lotion to treat burns. Prickly pear cactus has been used for injuries, edema, hyperlipidemia, obesity and catarrhal gastritis. In mexican traditional medicine, irritable pear cactus (nopal) is utilized for the treatment of diabetes and high cholesterol. Alcoholic extracts have actually been indicated for anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and antiviral functions. The chinese dressed abscesses with the fleshy pad of the plant. The american indians utilized the fruit for food and also made syrup from it to treat whooping cough and asthma.

    Just just recently, research has begun to show just how much the seeds of the irritable pear can so significantly benefit skin. Within the edible part of each irritable pear fruit there are numerous seeds. The seed amount can differ from 30% to 40% on a dry weight basis. These seeds contain oil, and it is this nutrient-rich oil that is drawn out and then used on the skin. Today, oil can be pushed from the seeds and after that used as a carrier oil or active ingredient in cosmetics and skin care applications.

    Anatomy of the skin’s skin

    The skin, or outer layer of human skin, is covered and secured by a layer of lipids and sweat called the acid mantle. The lipid part of the acid mantle is made up of sebum from sebaceous glands in addition to lipids from the stratum corneum (the outer layer of the epidermis) the sweat of the acid mantle is that produced by sweat glands. The acid mantle has an acidic ph. The ph is the measurement of level of acidity or alkalinity of a body fluid. With a ph in between 4 and 6.5, the skin is secured from bacterial and fungal infection in addition to water loss. The acid mantle likewise supports the barrier function of the stratum corneum. If the acid mantle loses its acidity, the skin ends up being prone to damage and infection as well as inflammation and level of sensitivity.

    The stratum corneum has a brick-and-mortar type style. Corneocytes are the cells that form the brick-like layer. The mortar is comprised of a complex of intercellular lipids that holds the moisture in between the corneocytes. The stratum corneum maintains the water level of the skin listed below and controls and decreases what is called transepidermal water loss (tewl). Tewl is the natural wetness drain from deeper skin layers to be lost eventually by evaporation from the skin surface area. With the brick-and-mortar design, the cells in the stratum corneum (the corneocytes) form a water-retaining barrier embedded in a lipid matrix.

    The primary lipids that comprise the mortar of the stratum corneum include ceramides (around 40-50%), cholesterol (20-25%), and fatty acids (10-25%). It is this mortar of lipids that serves to prevent water loss through the stratum corneum. These lipids and the natural moisturizing element (nmf) of the stratum corneum are essential in preserving the water level of the skin along with reducing tewl. The nmf, which is housed within the corneocytes, is composed of complimentary amino acids and their derivatives, urocanic acid, inorganic salts, sugars, lactic acid, and urea. Nmf elements are extremely effective humectants that attract and bind water from the environment, drawing it into the corneocytes. These substances are accountable for keeping the skin moist and flexible by drawing in and holding water. They can hold big amounts of water in the skin cells and are also efficient in taking in water from the atmosphere and/or items applied to the skin. The lipids serve to prevent water loss from happening in the nmf.

    The stratum corneum skin barrier function– normal versus dry skin

    Fatty acids in the skin lube, soften, and secure skin and avoid moisture loss from the skin. Both necessary and non-essential fats play different and important roles in appropriate skin function. The two types of essential fatty acids (efas) are linoleic acid and alpha-linoleic acid. Efas are called necessary because they are definitely vital in our bodies, however our bodies can not synthesize them. We must, therefore, consume them in our diets or use them to our skin. All other fatty acids found in the skin just are described as fatty acids. These include palmitic acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, stearic acid, and others. Non-essential fats can be produced by the body, although they can still be consumed from some of the food that we eat or applied to the skin.

    Components of vegetable/herbal/nut/ seed oils and their impact on skin

    A deficiency in stratum corneum lipids may add to dehydrated skin or xerosis (an unusual dryness of the skin or mucous membranes). Aspects that might trigger such condition include age, low humidity in the environment, cold or heat direct exposure (e.g. Sunburn, wind burn, or frostbite), diet plan, genetics, and indoor heating. Aspects that can break down the protective lipid layer and increase tewl consist of taking long, hot showers in the winter season, utilizing harsh detergents or solvents, excessive hand cleaning, and applying annoying chemicals. When the skin barrier breaks down, one might observe dry, scratchy, flaky, rough, and dull skin and can even develop fissures and fractures. Whether a person has healthy, supple skin or experiences typical skin conditions, upkeep of a healthy skin barrier is crucial. A daily skin regimen must be followed frequently to preserve the health of the skin.

    One remarkable way to help preserve the health of the skin is to apply vegetable/herbal/nut/ seed oils onto the skin. These oils, along with creams, creams, ointments, butters, and balms soften and smooth the skin surface area, maintain skin’s tone and elasticity, avoid tewl, and support the lipid matrix. Vegetable and seed oils, beeswax, squalene, lanolin, and shea butter supply nutrients to and have a hydrating effect on the skin. They are called occlusive substances and form a barrier on the surface of the skin helping to minimize tewl. Thus, veggie oils are extremely biocompatible to the skin and keep the health of the stratum corneum.

    Vegetable oils can be utilized to water down and bring vital oils onto skin. They can likewise be therapeutic substances, in that they consist of the following chemical elements: 1.) Important and non-essential fats, 2.) Fat-soluble vitamins, 3.) Sterols/phytosterols, and 4.) Polyphenols/phenolic substances.

    Element 1– essential and non-essential fatty acids: veggie oils contain differing amounts of efas and non-essential fatty acids. When efas are deficient in the skin, the integrity of the skin suffers. A shortage can trigger a disruption in the epidermic homeostasis which affects the barrier function of the skin. This can then cause tewl which can then lead to skin conditions such as dryness, scaliness, redness, dermatitis, and other signs of swelling. Diet, age, and specific diseases like diabetes contribute to an efa deficiency. The efas present in vegetable oils help restore the skin barrier and treat inflammatory disorders of the skin consisting of dermatitis, psoriasis, and eczema. They assist injuries heal and help in the avoidance of wrinkles.

    As discussed earlier, linoleic acid (la) is among the two kinds of efas. La, the most plentiful polyunsaturated fatty acid (pufa) exists in the epidermis. Pufas are fatty acids with two or more carbon double bonds. They consist of omega 3 and omega 6 fats. They are very unstable and easily oxidize when exposed to oxygen and light. When tocopherols such as vitamin e are present in a pufa-rich vegetable oil, the oil’s lipids end up being more steady. Linoleic acid, an omega 6 fat, is a vital fatty acid in the skin that is required for the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous barrier to water loss. If the water material of the stratum corneum (commonly triggered by a breakdown or assault to the skin barrier) falls below 10% the natural functions of it are impaired and the skin ends up being dry (dehydrated), scaly, and less pliable, all the indications of xerosis. The most typical locations people experience xerosis are on the limbs. Linoleic acid is essential to the appropriate growth and development of the skin. It likewise is needed for synthesis of the essential long-chain ceramides required to safeguard versus dry skin. Vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid include: safflower, sunflower/not high oleic acid version, flax seed, hemp seed, wheatgerm, walnut, and sesame oil. Macadamia nut and sea buckthorn oils are all abundant in palmitic acid. The other type of important fat found in vegetable oils is referred to as alpha-linoleic acid (ala). It decreases inflammation when used topically and can decrease acne.

    Part 2– fat-soluble vitamins: vitamin e, or tocopherols, is a potent antioxidant found in vegetable oils. Antioxidants prevent totally free radicals from causing cell damage. Skin is susceptible to aging from free radicals due to the fact that the complimentary radicals harm the collagen (the primary part in connective skin tissue) and elastin fibers in the skin. Tocopherols work as complimentary extreme scavengers. Vitamin e assists heal, repair, and regrow skin. There are a number of kinds of tocopherols consisting of alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), and delta (δ) tocopherols. Veggie oils are likewise an excellent source of fat-soluble vitamins a, d, and k. As mentioned above, when tocopherols such as vitamin e are present in a pufa-rich grease, the oil’s lipids end up being more stable.

    Part 3– sterols/phytosterols: phytosterols are components discovered in vegetable oils that look like cholesterol elements. Like cholesterol, phytosterols have a water-binding capacity that may assist maintain a healthy skin barrier function. When phytosterols are used topically on the skin, anti-aging advantages may take place. They not just stop the slow-down of collagen production brought on by sun damage, however they can likewise motivate new collagen production.

    Part 4– polyphenols/phenolic compounds: polyphenols are found in veggie oils and are a large class of chemical substances known as phenolic compounds. Whether ingested or used topically, they provide the body with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and oxidative stress prevention. Polyphenols avoid skin damage from sunshine’s uv rays and can ameliorate negative skin responses following uv direct exposure consisting of skin damage, erythema (redness or rash arising from capillary blockage), and lipid peroxidation (oxidative degeneration of lipids). [4]

    Nutrition realities

    According to the usda, 100 grams/3.5 ounces of prickly pear cactus consists of about:.

    • 40 calories
    • 10 grams carbohydrates
    • 5 grams fiber
    • Less than 1 gram of fat or protein
    • 85 milligrams magnesium (24 percent dv)
    • 14 milligrams vitamin c (17 percent dv)
    • Milligram riboflavin/vitamin b2( 8 percent dv)
    • Milligram vitamin b6 (8 percent dv)
    • 56 milligram calcium (6 percent dv)
    • 220 milligrams potassium (5 percent dv)


    1. Has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant results

    Research research studies have actually found prickly pear fruit and pods are abundant in flavonoids, carotenoid and polyphenol anti-oxidants, along with vitamin c. In certain research studies, compounds that have actually been identified in this plant include: gallic acid, vanillic acid, catechins, betalain, betanin and indicaxanthin.

    There’s proof that these phytochemicals can support the body immune system, help to protect skin health, and ward off complimentary extreme damage and inflammation that contribute to aging and disease. There’s some proof that prickly pear cactus likewise has anti-clastogenic abilities, suggesting it secures dna from damage.

    In addition, juice from the cactus, which has a high antioxidant material, has been discovered to have the capability to catch totally free radicals and minimize oxidative stress associated with exercise.

    2. Supplies important minerals and fats

    Records suggest that during the “tuna harvest” in latin america and the southwest u.s., prickly pear was likely the most crucial food available in the region for several years (in addition to pecans and buffalo).

    The pods and fruit of this cactus offer important minerals like calcium, potassium and magnesium. These essential minerals serve as electrolytes and are required for many functions, consisting of bone, heart, nerve and muscle health.

    Studies looking at the fatty acid profile of prickly pear seed oil show that it’s likewise rich in important unsaturated fats, consisting of linoleic acid (61.01%), followed by oleic acid (25.52%) and palmitic acid (12.23%). These have benefits including securing the heart and managing inflammation.

    3. Good source of fiber that supports metabolic health

    Cactus fruit and is an excellent source of carbs and dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber. Consuming it might help to enhance gut health and minimize digestive problems like irregularity and diarrhea.

    Due to the fact that they are a source of fiber (or pectin) and low in sugar, the immature pads, or nopalitos, have likewise been used to help control or avoid type 2 diabetes. Some research study recommends that the pads which consist of soluble fibers and a viscous mucilage may have a natural hypoglycemic results, implying they can decrease high blood sugar level levels.

    One method which this plant can reduce blood sugar level levels and lower high cholesterol is by reducing absorption of these substances in the stomach and intestine. Some studies demonstrate that when adults with high cholesterol follow a healthy diet and take in prickly pear supplements it can decrease total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (ldl or “bad”) cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    Irritable pear pads also include high levels of amylose, a starch that breaks down into easy sugars gradually, offering energy however assisting to prevent a spike in blood glucose.

    4. Might include antibacterial and antiviral residential or commercial properties

    According to folklore medication, what is the benefit of irritable pear for warding off infections and infections? While research study on the topic is limited, this plant has actually long been used for its antiviral and anti-bacterial effects, such as safeguarding against urinary tract infections, skin infections, and even tuberculosis and hepatitis.

    There’s some evidence that mucilage from the fully grown pads can kill bacteria that contribute to infections. Fully grown pads have also been used as natural bactericides for skin injuries when they are pressed against the skin.

    5. Utilized to deal with enlarged prostate

    While more research on this subject is needed, some studies have actually found that powdered irritable pear supplements may reduce symptoms of bigger prostate, such as prompts to urinate regularly even with the bladder in empty.


    Prickly pear cactuses grow in many warm parts of the world, consisting of in the southwest u.s., australia, southern africa, mexico and other latin american nations, and throughout the mediterranean. While this cactus is most commonly grown for its edible fruit and paddles (or pads/nopales), practically every part of the plant can be used in some way.

    Historically, there have actually been numerous usages for prickly pear fruits, juices, teas, pads and seeds in folklore and conventional medications. Some examples of how this plant was utilized include:

    • Combating infections and infections
    • Assisting to deal with injuries and burns
    • Treating diarrhea
    • Fending off diabetes, heart disease, prostate illness and other inflammatory diseases
    • Eliminating stomach ulcers
    • Minimizing pain
    • Stopping bleeding
    • Not only is the fruit from this cactus consumed, but prickly pear seed oil and extracts are likewise readily available. These are used as supplements and made from the dark, difficult seeds of the cactus fruit. Each prickly pear fruit includes about 50 seeds.

    Prickly pear extract and oils are utilized in skin care and for hair care– contributed to items like serums, hair shampoos, conditioners and styling items– because the oil has hydrating and anti-aging results, comparable to olive oil. It might assist to decrease winkle formation and other signs of aging, deal with wounds and burns, freshen the appearance of dull skin, and enhance hair and nails.

    Furthermore, some large species of irritable pear flowers are grown for ornamental/decorative purposes. These species include the engelmann prickly pear (o. Engelmannii) and the beavertail cactus (o. Basilaris). These can be discovered throughout the southwestern u.s., such as in texas and arizona.

    Prickly pear plants tend to grow quickly with sufficient moisture and spread quickly, often growing a lot that they are considered to be intrusive. [5]

    Why use prickly pear oil for anti-aging

    Despite its historical origins, prickly pear seed oil has actually just started making waves in the skincare market for the in 2015 or two. Possibly it’s because of its intimidating botanical origins or its problem to produce, but either way, we ought to all be thinking about adding prickly pear seed oil into our skin care routine.

    High levels of anti-oxidants

    Natural skin items are frequently known for their multi-beneficial powers and prickly pear seed oil is no exception. Anti-oxidants are especially crucial in the battle against aging skin due to the fact that these natural compounds work to rid the skin of free radicals that are the underlying reason for aging skin.

    While other natural oils also contain antioxidants, prickly pear seed oil boats the highest concentration of them, making each drop up to 150% more reliable than other beauty oils on the market. Belatins, the scientific name for the anti-oxidants in prickly pear oil, are also found in other fruits and berries such as pomegranates, goji berries, and blueberries, however the irritable pear cactus is one of the only plants that have as much power in its topical application.

    Obviously, blueberries are exceptionally helpful for your total health and health, however a topical application of these antioxidants targets your skin care concerns straight, producing much faster results.

    Brightens and tightens up

    Unsaturated fatty acids are also a substance present in prickly pear oil, and while we’re often told to shy away from taking in high-fat foods, fats work as anti-inflammatories on the skin. If you have actually ever wondered why your skin gets inflamed quickly or turns red without much prodding, it probably suggests you’re missing out on the presence of fatty acids in your skin care routine.

    The topical application of fats actually works to lighten up dark areas of your skin. From under eye circles to sun damage, prickly pear oil works quickly to even out your skin tone and illuminate your skin.

    Another natural substance in the oil, linoleic acid, is a collagen-boosting compound that restores skin cells and promotes the revival of additional skin cells. This process gives the appearance of more youthful, firmer skin with increased elasticity.

    Works with all skin types

    In addition to its effective compounds, prickly pear seed oil is likewise non-condegemic, indicating it will never obstruct your pores and works with all skin types. If you’re hesitant about utilizing an oil on your skin– specifically if you struggle with oily skin – you remain in luck. Prickly pear oil also takes in into the skin easily, so you’ll never ever have to worry about going out the door or heading to sleep with excess oil on your skin.

    How to use prickly pear seed oil for anti-aging

    Although many are familiar with various kinds of skin care products, beauty oil is often the hardest to master. With prickly pear oil you’ll never ever need to fret about the oil just sitting on top of your skin, however if you’re still anxious about using the oil directly to your skin these simple use tips will reduce your shift into the oil.

    1. Apply the oil after you have actually cleansed and toned for optimum absorption and impact.
    2. Use the oil in place of your moisturizer if your skin is well-hydrated.
    3. You’ll just require a drop or more. It goes a long way so do not apply as generously as a moisturizer.
    4. Massage the oil into your skin, taking unique care with any dark areas or other areas of concern.
    5. Never squander a drop of the oil. Massage the remaining oil into your hands – including your cuticles – for stunning hands and nails. [6]

    Know the advantages of prickly pear seed oil for your hair

    Holy grail for dry hair: prickly pear seed oil includes an enormous quantity of vitamin e oil than any other plant oil in the market, consisting of argan oil. Vitamin e will work to moisturize dry hair and provide your hair the hydration it needs. Prickly pear oil will assist your hair to hold onto water even in the driest and most popular weather.

    Saviour of curly hair: the damp and heat conditions can be a misery for individuals with curly hair. The prickly pear oil is abundant in fats which assist in keeping your hair soft and shiny, even under the scorching sun.

    For harmed hair: the oleic acid in prickly pear seed oil holds water loss in skin and hair, which seals wetness into the hair and assists keeping this wetness enables your hair to be more versatile, softer and supple.

    Appropriate for oily hair: prickly pear seed is abundant in antioxidants which promote the stimulation of the collagen and allows your scalp stay healthy while tightening the pores and hair follicles on your head which lowers oil production without leaving your hair and scalp dry.

    Effective for an itchy scalp: palmitic acid is understood for its regenerative recovery residential or commercial properties. Scalp issues like dandruff, dermatitis, dryness or even sunburn can be cured by palmitic acid present in the oil.

    Causes hair growth: omega-6 and omega-9 are another essential ingredients in prickly pear seed oil. It has fantastic regenerative residential or commercial properties for hair that allows promoting healthy scalp conditions leading to hair development. [7]

    Does prickly pear oil benefit all hair types?

    Toth states all hair types would gain from including prickly pear oil to their hairs. Nevertheless, particular hair types would benefit more than others. “it’s most beneficial for dry, porous hair types such as highly textured, curly, wavy, chemically processed, and colored,” he explains. [8]

    Alternatives to prickly pear oil

    If you have actually decided prickly pear oil isn’t for you and you want to discover a natural oil with a few of the exact same residential or commercial properties, here are some other options:.

    • Coconut oil, which is anti-bacterial and ultra hydrating
    • Argan oil, which is a great everyday moisturizer, even for those with acne-prone skin
    • Rosehip seed oil, which is hydrating and prevents skin damage
    • Marula oil, which is antibacterial and avoids skin damage while hydrating the skin
    • Jojoba oil, which assists battle acne, moisturizes, and safeguards the skin from sun damage [9]

    Keep in mind

    Keep in mind that prickly pear oil is one of the more pricey oils on the marketplace due to its high demand and trouble to produce.

    When looking around, it’s great to remember prickly pear oil is in some cases called barbary fig seed oil, too. There is an indian variety of the oil, as well as the moroccan range. Know that while the indian variety is good the moroccan variety is considerably more potent. [10]

    Negative effects

    In regards to negative effects, some research study has actually revealed that when consumed it can cause issues like indigestion and bloating.

    When applied topically, however, prickly pear oil is typically thought about safe on all skin types.

    The only potential threat is if you have an allergy to the fruit. [11]

    The bottom line

    Prickly pear seed oil is a highly-moisturizing, skin-softening oil derived from a cactus. Prickly pear oil benefits the skin with it’s remarkable hydrating and anti-aging homes. The irritable pear is called “the miracle plant” because of its many medical usages throughout the centuries. Rich in protein, vital fatty acids, and vitamins e and k this valuable, natural oil changes the skin by refining and tightening up pores, lowering inflammation and swelling, brightening under the eyes, lightening dark areas, lightening up skin tone and restoring skins flexibility. Deeply moisturizing because of its high linoleic acid material, prickly pear seed oil is quickly absorbed into the skin and deeply permeates the layers to nurture and soften. Prickly pear seed oil is non-comedogenic, you can use it daily, best after cleansing and exfoliating your skin– without worry of clogging pores. Prickly pear seed oil in fact comes from the prickly pear cactus, which is often called the barbary fig. The cactus grows fruit pods that contain small seeds, and these seeds are filled with a nutrient-rich oil that’s extracted and used in skincare. The plant will mature to 2 meters in height and hold up against dry weather and the shortage of water. This plant flourishes in a number of arid and hot places of the world and most effectively in morocco. [12]
    Prickly pear oil is a precious oil, really appropriate to resolve your insecurities. It permits you to moisturize your body, secure your skin, enhance sensitive and dry skin, manage the sebum level of oily skin … and numerous other benefits that you can check out at the top of our short article.

    This is a vital oil that needs to be consisted of in your items. Make it a part of your routine and you will not regret it. So look after your skin, look after your hair, look after your body, and lastly look after yourself, since nobody else will do it for you. [13]


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